Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Construction Partners, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These interim consolidated statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which permit reduced disclosure for interim periods. The Consolidated Balance Sheet at September 30, 2017 was derived from audited financial statements for the year then ended, but does not include all necessary disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) with respect to annual financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited consolidated financial statements include all recurring adjustments and normal accruals necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the dates and periods presented. These consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended September 30, 2017 and notes thereto included in the IPO Prospectus. Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full fiscal year or for any future period.
Common share and per share amounts have been retroactively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect to the Stock Split described in Note 2—Initial Public Offering.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the recorded amounts of assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity, revenues and expenses during the reporting period, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Estimates are used in accounting for items such as recognition of revenues and cost of revenues, goodwill and intangible assets, allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation allowances related to income taxes, accruals for potential liabilities related to lawsuits or insurance claims, and the fair value of equity-based compensation awards. Estimates are continually evaluated based on historical information and actual experience. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
A description of certain critical accounting policies of the Company is presented below. Additional critical accounting policies and the underlying judgments and uncertainties are described in the notes to the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2017 included in the IPO Prospectus.
|Emerging Growth Company
Emerging Growth Company
Construction Partners, Inc. is an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or “JOBS Act” which was enacted in April 2012. As an emerging growth company, the Company may take advantage of an exemption from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until the effective date of such standards is applicable to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company may elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised, and it has different effective dates for public and private companies, the Company is required to adopt the new or revised standard at the effective date applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
|Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts receivable including retainage, net are generally based on amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled, and amounts retained by the customer pending completion of a project. It is common in the Company’s industry for a small portion of progress billings of the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until the Company completes a project to the satisfaction of the customer in accordance with contract terms. Such amounts are also included as contracts receivable including retainage, net. Based on the Company’s experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retainage balances are generally collected within one year of the completion of the project.
The carrying value of contracts receivable including retainage, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the allowance for doubtful accounts and an adjustment of the contract receivable.
|Costs and Estimated Earnings on Uncompleted Contracts
Costs and Estimated Earnings on Uncompleted Contracts
Billing practices for the Company’s contracts are governed by the contract terms of each project based on progress toward completion approved by the owner, achievement of milestones or pre-agreed schedules. Billings do not necessarily correlate with revenues recognized under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. The Company records current assets and current liabilities to account for these differences in timing.
The current asset, “Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts,” represents revenues that have been recognized in amounts which have not been billed under the terms of the contracts. Included in costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for errors, changes in contract specifications or design, contract change orders in dispute, unapproved as to scope and price, or other customer related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (claims and unapproved change orders). Such amounts are recorded at estimated net realizable value when realization is probable and can be reasonably estimated. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Unapproved change orders and claims also involve the use of estimates, and revenues associated with unapproved change orders and claims are included when realization is probable and amounts can be reliably determined. The Company did not recognize any material amounts associated with claims and unapproved change orders during the periods presented.
The current liability, “Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts,” represents billings to customers in excess of revenues recognized.
|Concentration of Risks
Concentration of Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of contracts receivable including retainage. In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers and does not generally require collateral. Concentrations of credit risk associated with these receivables are monitored on an ongoing basis. The Company has not historically experienced significant credit losses due primarily to management’s assessment of customers’ credit ratings. The Company principally deals with recurring customers, state and local governments and local companies whose reputations are known to the Company. Credit checks are performed for significant new customers. Progress payments are generally required for significant projects. The Company generally has the ability to file liens against the customer’s property if payments are not made on a timely basis. No customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s contracts receivable including retainage, net balance at June 30, 2018 or September 30, 2017.
Projects performed for various Departments of Transportation accounted for 45.6% and 43.7% of consolidated revenues for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2017, respectively, and 40.9% and 38.7% of consolidated revenues for the nine months ended June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2017, respectively. Two customers accounted for more than 10% of consolidated revenues for the periods presented below (unaudited):
|Revenues and Cost Recognition
Revenues and Cost Recognition
Revenues from the Company’s contracts are recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost method). Changes in job performance, job conditions, and estimated profitability, including those arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in favorable or unfavorable revisions to estimated costs, revenues and gross profit, and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
The accuracy of revenues and cost of revenues reported on the consolidated financial statements depends on, among other things, management’s estimates of total costs to complete projects. The Company maintains reasonable estimates based on management’s experience; however, many factors contribute to changes in estimates of contract costs. Accordingly, estimates made with respect to uncompleted projects are subject to change as each project progresses and better estimates of contract costs become available. All contract costs are recorded as incurred and revisions to estimated total costs are reflected as soon as the obligation to perform is determined. Provisions are recognized for the full amount of estimated losses on uncompleted contracts whenever evidence indicates that the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue, regardless of the stage of completion. When the Company incurs additional costs related to work performed by subcontractors, the Company may have contractual provisions to back charge the subcontractors for those costs. A reduction to costs related to back charges is recognized when the estimated recovery is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
Contract costs include direct labor and material, amounts paid to subcontractors, direct overhead costs and equipment costs (primarily depreciation, fuel, maintenance and repairs).
As more fully described in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended September 30, 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) in May 2014, which revised and consolidated previous guidance, eliminated industry-specific revenue recognition guidance and established a comprehensive principle-based approach for determining revenue recognition. This update is effective for the Company’s fiscal year beginning October 1, 2018. Management is in the process of completing an evaluation to select a transition method and determine the potential impact of adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
The provision for income taxes includes federal and state income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the fiscal years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the realization of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented net by taxing authority and classified as non-current on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company’s policy is to classify income tax related interest and penalties in interest expense and other expenses, respectively.
|Equity Issuance Costs
Equity Issuance Costs
The Company capitalizes certain third-party fees that are directly associated with in-process equity offerings. At September 30, 2017, $2.2 million of capitalized equity issuance costs were recorded as prepaid expenses, included in other current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Upon the successful completion of the IPO in May 2018, the equity issuance costs balance of $6.3 million was reclassified from prepaid expenses to additional paid-in capital during the three months ended June 30, 2018.