Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Emerging Growth Company
The Company is an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) enacted in 2012. As an emerging growth company, the Company could have taken advantage of an exemption that would have allowed the Company to wait to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until the effective date of such standards for private companies. However, the Company has irrevocably elected to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a new or revised standard has different effective dates for public and private companies, the Company is required to adopt the standard at the effective date applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists principally of currency on hand and demand deposits at commercial banks. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are so near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in value because of changes in interest rates. Cash equivalents include investments with original maturities of three months or less. The Company maintains demand accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit at several banks. From time to time, account balances have exceeded the maximum available federal deposit insurance coverage limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and regularly monitors its credit risk.
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts receivable are generally based on amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled, and amounts retained by customers pending completion of a project. It is common in the Company’s industry for a small portion of either
progress billings or the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until the Company completes a project to the satisfaction of the customer in accordance with the applicable contract terms. Such amounts, defined as retainage, represent a contract asset and are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as “Contracts receivable including retainage, net.” Based on the Company’s experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retainage balances are generally collected within one year of the completion of the project.
The carrying value of contracts receivable including retainage, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the allowance for doubtful accounts and an adjustment of the contract receivable.
Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Billing practices for the Company’s contracts are governed by the contract terms of each project based on (i) progress toward completion approved by the owner, (ii) achievement of milestones or (iii) pre-agreed schedules. Billings do not necessarily correlate with revenues recognized under the cost-to-cost input method (formerly known as the percentage-of-completion method). The Company records contract assets and contract liabilities to account for these differences in timing.
The contract asset, “Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts,” arises when the Company recognizes revenues for services performed under its construction projects, but the Company is not yet entitled to bill the customer under the terms of the contract. Amounts billed to customers are excluded from this asset and reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as “Contracts receivable including retainage, net.” Included in costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for (i) errors, (ii) changes in contract specifications or design, (iii) contract change orders in dispute, unapproved as to scope and price, or (iv) other customer-related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (such as claims). Such amounts are recorded to the extent that the amount can be reasonably estimated and recovery is probable. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Unapproved change orders and claims also involve the use of estimates, and revenues associated with unapproved change orders and claims are included in the transaction price for which it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty is resolved. The Company did not recognize any material amounts associated with claims and unapproved change orders during the periods presented.
The contract liability, “Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts,” represents the Company’s obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has been paid by the customer or for which the Company has billed the customer under the terms of the contract. Revenue for future services reflected in this account are recognized, and the liability is reduced, as the Company subsequently satisfies the performance obligation under the contract.
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts and billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are typically resolved within one year and are not considered significant financing components.
Concentration of Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of contracts receivable including retainage. In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers and does not generally require collateral. The Company monitors concentrations of credit risk associated with these receivables on an ongoing basis. The Company has not historically experienced significant credit losses, due primarily to management’s assessment of customers’ credit ratings. The Company principally deals with recurring customers, state and local governments and well-known local companies whose reputations are known to management. The Company performs credit checks for significant new customers and generally requires progress payments for significant projects. The Company generally has the ability to file liens against the property if payments are not made on a timely basis. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s contracts receivable including retainage, net balance at September 30, 2020 or September 30, 2019.
Projects performed for various Departments of Transportation accounted for 32.5% and 40.4% of consolidated revenues for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Customers that accounted for more than 10.0% of consolidated revenues during either of those periods are presented below:
The Company’s inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and are accounted for on an average cost basis or a first-in, first-out cost basis. The cost of inventory includes the cost of material, labor, trucking and other equipment costs associated with procuring and transporting materials to HMA plants for production and delivery to customers. Inventories consist primarily of raw materials, including asphalt cement, aggregate and millings that the Company expects to utilize on construction projects within one year.
Revenues from Contracts with Customers
The Company derives all of its revenues from contracts with its customers, predominantly by performing construction services for both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports and commercial and residential developments. These projects are performed for a mix of federal, state, municipal and private customers. In addition, the Company generates revenues from the sale of construction materials, including HMA, aggregates, liquid asphalt and ready-mix concrete, to third-party public and private customers pursuant to contracts with those customers. The following table reflects, for the periods presented, (i) revenues generated from public infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to public customers and (ii) revenues generated from private infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to private customers.
Revenues derived from construction projects are recognized over time as the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring control of the asset created or enhanced by the project to the customer. Recognition of revenues and cost of revenues for construction projects requires significant judgment by management, including, among other things, estimating total costs expected to be incurred to complete a project and measuring progress toward completion. Management reviews contract estimates regularly to assess revisions of estimated costs to complete a project and measurement of progress toward completion. During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, revisions in estimates related to amounts recorded in prior periods resulted in the Company recording net increases in revenues of $1.6 million and $3.8 million, respectively.
Management believes the Company maintains reasonable estimates based on prior experience; however, many factors contribute to changes in estimates of contract costs. Accordingly, estimates made with respect to uncompleted projects are subject to change as each project progresses and better estimates of contract costs become available. All contract costs are recorded as incurred, and revisions to estimated total costs are reflected as soon as the obligation to perform is determined. Provisions are recognized for the full amount of estimated losses on uncompleted contracts whenever evidence indicates that the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue, regardless of the stage of completion. When the Company incurs additional costs related to work performed by subcontractors, the Company may be able to utilize contractual provisions to back charge the subcontractors for those costs. A reduction to costs related to back charges is recognized when estimated recovery is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Contract costs consist of (i) direct costs on contracts, including labor, materials, and amounts payable to subcontractors and (ii) indirect costs related to contract performance, such as insurance, employee benefits, and equipment (primarily depreciation, fuel, maintenance and repairs).
Progress toward completion is estimated using the input method, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred through the measurement date to total estimated costs required to complete the project (cost-to-cost method). The Company believes this method best depicts the transfer of goods and services to the customer because it represents satisfaction of the Company’s performance obligation under the contract, which occurs as the Company incurs costs. The Company measures percentage of completion based on the performance of a single performance obligation under its construction projects. Each of the Company’s construction contracts represents a single performance obligation to complete a defined construction project. This is because goods and services promised for
delivery to a customer are not distinct, as the customer cannot benefit from any individual portion of the services on its own. All deliverables under a contract are part of a project defined by a customer and represent a series of integrated goods and services that have the same pattern of delivery to the customer and use the same measure of progress toward satisfaction of the performance obligation as the customer’s asset is created or enhanced by the Company. The Company’s obligation is not satisfied until the entire project is complete.
Revenue recognized during a reporting period is based on the cost-to-cost input method applied to the total transaction price, including adjustments for variable consideration, such as liquidated damages, penalties or bonuses, related to the timeliness or quality of project performance. The Company includes variable consideration in the estimated transaction price at the most likely amount to which the Company expects to be entitled or the most likely amount the Company expects to incur, in the case of liquidated damages or penalties. Such amounts are included in the transaction price for which it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty is resolved. The Company accounts for changes to the estimated transaction price using a cumulative catch-up adjustment.
The majority of the Company’s public construction contracts are fixed unit price contracts. Under fixed unit price contracts, the Company is committed to providing materials or services required by a contract at fixed unit prices (for example, dollars per ton of asphalt placed). The Company’s private customer contracts are primarily fixed total price contracts, also known as lump sum contracts, which require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price. Contract cost is recorded as incurred, and revisions in contract revenue and cost estimates are reflected in the accounting period when known. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those changes arising from contract change orders, penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to estimated revenues and costs and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Change orders are modifications of an original contract that effectively change the existing provisions of the contract and become part of the single performance obligation that is partially satisfied at the date of the contract modification. This is because goods and services promised under change orders are generally not distinct from the remaining goods and services under the existing contract, due to the significant integration of services performed in the context of the contract. Accordingly, change orders are generally accounted for as a modification of the existing contract and single performance obligation. We account for the modification using a cumulative catch-up adjustment. Either the Company or its customers may initiate change orders, which may include changes in specifications or designs, manner of performance, facilities, equipment, materials, sites and period of completion of the work.
Revenues derived from the sale of HMA, aggregates, ready-mix concrete, and liquid asphalt are recognized at a point in time, which is when control of the product is transferred to the customer. Generally, that point in time is when the customer accepts delivery at its facility or receives product in its own transport vehicles from one of the Company’s HMA plants. Upon purchase, the Company generally provides an invoice or similar document detailing the goods transferred to the customer. The Company generally offers payment terms customary in the industry, which typically require payment ranging from point-of-sale to 30 days following purchase.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures and discloses certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Inputs used to measure fair value are classified using the following hierarchy:
Level 1. Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2. Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through corroboration with observable market data.
Level 3. Inputs are unobservable for the asset or liability and include situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability. The inputs used in the determination of fair value are based on the best information available under the circumstances and may require significant management judgment or estimation.
The Company endeavors to utilize the best available information in measuring fair value.
The Company’s financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, contracts receivable including retainage and accounts payable reflected as current assets and current liabilities on its Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2020 and 2019. Due to the short-term nature of these instruments, management considers their carrying value to approximate their fair value.
The Company also has term loans and a revolving credit facility, as described in Note 11 - Debt. The carrying value of amounts outstanding under these credit facilities is reflected as long-term debt, net of current maturities and current maturities of debt on the
Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2020 and 2019. Due to the variable rate or short-term nature of these instruments, management considers their carrying value to approximate their fair value.
The Company also has derivative instruments. The fair value of commodity and interest rate swaps are based on forward and spot prices, as described in Note 22 - Fair Value Measurements.
Management applies fair value measurement guidance to its impairment analysis for tangible and intangible assets.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at cost or, if acquired as a business combination, at fair value and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements for operating leases are amortized over the lesser of the term of the related lease or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Quarry reserves are depleted in accordance with the units-of-production method as aggregate is extracted, using the initial allocation of cost based on proven and probable reserves. Routine repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Asset improvements are capitalized at cost and amortized over the remaining useful life of the related asset.
The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment categories are as follows:
Management periodically assesses the estimated useful life over which assets are depreciated, depleted or amortized. If the analysis warrants a change in the estimated useful life of property, plant and equipment, management will reduce the estimated useful life and depreciate, deplete or amortize the carrying value prospectively over the shorter remaining useful life.
The carrying amounts of assets sold or retired and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated in the period of disposal, and the resulting gains and losses are included in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income during the same period.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The carrying value of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets subject to amortization is evaluated whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets, or an asset group, may not be recoverable. Events or circumstances that might cause management to perform impairment testing include, but are not limited to, (i) a significant decrease in the market price of an asset, (ii) a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used or in its physical condition, (iii) an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of an asset, (iv) an operating or cash flow performance combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of an asset, and (v) an expectation that an asset will be disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life. If indicators of potential impairment are present, management performs a recoverability test and, if necessary, records an impairment loss. If the total estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be generated from the use and ultimate disposition of an asset or asset group is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income, measured as the amount required to reduce the carrying value to fair value. Fair value is determined in accordance with the best available information based on the hierarchy described under “Fair Value Measurements” above. For example, the Company would first seek to identify quoted prices or other observable market data. If observable data is not available, management would apply the best available information under the circumstances to a technique, such as a discounted cash flow model, to estimate fair value. Impairment analysis involves estimates and the use of assumptions in connection with judgments made in forecasting long-term estimated inflows and outflows resulting from the use and ultimate disposition of an asset, and determining the ultimate useful lives of assets. Actual results may differ from these estimates using different assumptions, which could materially impact the results of an impairment assessment.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations. Other intangible assets consist of an indefinite-lived trade name license in connection with a business acquired, and finite-lived assets, including a non-compete agreement, customer relationships and construction backlog, each acquired in business acquisitions. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. In addition, management evaluates whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life. Judgments regarding indicators of potential impairment are based on market conditions and operational performance of the business.
Annually, on the first day of the Company’s fourth fiscal quarter, management performs an analysis of the carrying value of goodwill at its reporting unit for potential impairment. In accordance with GAAP, the Company may assess its goodwill for impairment initially using a qualitative approach to determine whether conditions exist to indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If management concludes, based on its assessment of relevant events, facts and circumstances, that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s carrying value is greater than its fair value, then a quantitative analysis will be performed to determine whether there is any impairment. The Company may also elect to initially perform a quantitative analysis instead of starting with a qualitative assessment. Because the Company has only one reporting unit, a market capitalization calculation can be performed as the first step of the quantitative assessment by comparing the book value of the Company’s stock (determined by reference to the Company’s stockholders’ equity) to the fair value of a share of the Company’s stock. If the fair value of the stock is greater than the book value of the stock, goodwill is deemed not to be impaired, and no further testing is required. If the fair value is less than the calculated book value, then the Company must take a second step to determine the impairment amount, as described below.
The second step requires comparing the carrying value of a reporting unit, including goodwill, to its fair value, typically using the multiple period discounting method under the income approach and market approach. The income approach uses a discounted cash flow model, which involves significant estimates and assumptions, including preparation of revenues and profitability growth forecasts, selection of a discount rate, and selection of a terminal year multiple, to estimate fair value. The market approach could include applying a control premium to the market price of the Company’s common stock or utilizing guideline public company multiples. Management’s assessment of facts and circumstances at each analysis date could cause these assumptions to change. If the fair value of the respective reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered to be impaired, and no further testing is required. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to write down goodwill to its fair value and is recorded in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income. The Company performed a quantitative assessment of goodwill using the market capitalization calculation for fiscal years 2020 and 2019 and determined that the fair value of its reporting unit exceeded its carrying value, and thus concluded that the carrying value of goodwill was not impaired at September 30, 2020 or 2019. Accordingly, no further analysis was required or performed.
Management also annually assesses the carrying value of the Company’s indefinite-lived intangible assets other than goodwill on the first day of the fiscal fourth quarter. Management tests indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment by comparing their carrying value to their estimated fair value. An impairment loss is recorded in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income to the extent that the carrying value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value. Similar to the assessment of goodwill, events and changes in circumstances could cause management to utilize different assumptions in subsequent evaluations, which could materially impact the results of an impairment assessment. Management concluded that the carrying value of the Company’s indefinite-lived intangible assets other than goodwill was not impaired at September 30, 2020 or 2019.
Deferred Debt Issuance Costs
Costs directly associated with obtaining debt financing are deferred and amortized over the term of the related debt agreement. Unamortized amounts related to long-term debt are reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related long-term debt liability.
Comprehensive income is a measure of net income and all other changes in equity that result from transactions other than transactions with stockholders. Management has determined that net income is the Company’s only component of comprehensive income. Accordingly, there is no difference between net income and comprehensive income.
The provision for income taxes includes federal and state income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the fiscal years in which the temporary differences are
expected to be reversed or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the realization of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented on a net basis by taxing authority and classified as non-current on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
We recognize the financial statement benefit of the Company’s tax positions that are at least more likely than not to be sustained upon audit based on the technical merits of the tax position. For tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon audit, management accrues the largest amount of the benefit that is more likely than not to be sustained. The Company classifies income tax-related interest and penalties as interest expense and other expenses, respectively. Refer to Note 15 - Provision for Income Taxes for further information regarding our federal and state income taxes.
Equity-Based Incentive Plans
Compensation costs related to equity-classified share-based awards are recognized in the consolidated financial statements based on grant date fair value. Compensation cost for graded-vesting awards is recognized ratably over the respective vesting periods.
Accrued Insurance Costs
The Company carries insurance policies to cover various risks, primarily including general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation, under which it is liable to reimburse the insurance company for a portion of each claim paid. The amount for which the Company is liable for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims ranges from $100,000 to $500,000 per occurrence. Management accrues insurance costs for probable losses, both reported and unreported, that are reasonably estimable using actuarial methods based on historic trends modified, if necessary, by recent events. Changes in loss assumptions caused by changes in actual experience would affect the assessment of the ultimate liability and could have an effect on the Company’s operating results and financial position up to $500,000 per occurrence for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims.
The Company provides employee medical insurance under policies that are both fixed-premium, fully-insured policies and self-insured policies that are administered by the insurance company. Under the self-insured policies, the Company is liable to reimburse the insurance company for actual claims paid plus an administrative fee. The Company purchases separate stop-loss insurance that limits the individual participant claim loss to amounts ranging from $100,000 to $160,000.
In addition to the retention items noted above, the Company’s insurance provider requires the Company to maintain a standby letter of credit. This letter of credit serves as a guarantee by the banking institution to pay the Company’s insurance provider the incurred claim costs attributable to general liability, workers’ compensation and automobile liability claims, up to the amount stated in the standby letter of credit, in the event that these claims are not paid by the Company (see Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies).
Earnings per Share
Basic net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per common share attributable to common stockholders is the same as basic net income per share attributable to common stockholders, but includes dilutive unvested stock awards using the treasury stock method.
Segment Reporting and Reporting Units
The Company operates in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina through its wholly owned subsidiaries located in four southeastern states. Each of the Company’s platform operating companies engages in essentially the same business, which consists primarily of infrastructure and road construction.
Management determined that the Company functions as a single operating segment, and thus reports as a single reportable segment. This determination is based on rules prescribed by GAAP applied to the manner in which management operates the Company. In particular, management assessed the discrete financial information routinely reviewed by the Company’s chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), its Chief Executive Officer, to monitor the Company’s operating performance and support decisions regarding allocation of resources to its operations. Specifically, performance is continuously monitored at the consolidated level and at the individual contract level to timely identify deviations from expected results. Resource allocations are based on the capacity of the Company’s operating facilities to pursue new project opportunities, including reallocation of assets that are underutilized from time to time at a certain operating facility to another operating facility where additional resources might be required to fully meet demand. Other factors further supporting this conclusion include substantial similarities throughout all of the Company’s operations with respect to services provided, type of customers, sourcing of materials and manufacturing and delivery methodologies.
Management further determined that, based on their economic similarities, the Company’s five platform operating companies, representing components, should be aggregated into one reporting unit for purposes of assessing potential impairment of goodwill in accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other. These legal entities represent material acquisitions that occurred over time in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and North Carolina pursuant to the Company’s strategic growth strategy. Each platform company is managed by its president, who has primary responsibility for the respective operating company. Collectively, these presidents are directly accountable to, and maintain regular contact with, the CODM as a team to discuss operating activities, financial results, forecasts, and operating plans for the Company’s single operating segment.
Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported net income.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef