Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies
Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Construction Partners, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Common share and per share amounts have been retroactively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect to the Stock Split described in Note 2 - Initial Public Offering.
Emerging Growth Company
Construction Partners, Inc. is an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, (the “JOBS Act”) enacted in April 2012. As an emerging growth company, the Company could have taken advantage of an exemption that would have allowed the Company to wait to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until the effective date of such standards for private companies. However, the JOBS Act provides that a company may elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different effective dates for public and private companies, the Company is required to adopt the new or revised standard at the effective date applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash consists principally of currency on hand and demand deposits at commercial banks. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both readily convertible to known amounts of cash, and are so near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in value because of changes in interest rates. Cash equivalents include investments with original maturities of three months or less. The Company maintains demand accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit at several banks.
From time to time, account balances have exceeded the maximum available Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation deposit insurance coverage limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and regularly monitors the Company’s credit risk.
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts receivable are generally based on amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled, and amounts retained by the customer pending completion of a project. It is common in the Company’s industry for a small portion of progress billings or the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until the Company completes a project to the satisfaction of the customer in accordance with contract terms. Such amounts are also included as contracts receivable including retainage. Based on the Company’s experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retainage balances are generally collected within one year of the completion of the project.
The carrying value of contracts receivable including retainage, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the allowance for doubtful accounts and an adjustment of the contract receivable.
Costs and Estimated Earnings on Uncompleted Contracts
Billing practices for the Company’s contracts are governed by the contract terms of each project based on progress toward completion approved by the owner, achievement of milestones or pre-agreed schedules. Billings do not necessarily correlate with revenues recognized under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. The Company records current assets and current liabilities to account for these differences in timing.
The current asset, “Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts,” represents revenues that have been recognized in amounts that have not been billed under the terms of the contracts. Included in costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for errors, changes in contract specifications or design, contract change orders in dispute, unapproved as to scope and price, or other customer-related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (claims and unapproved change orders). Such amounts are recorded at estimated net realizable value when realization is probable and can be reasonably estimated. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Unapproved change orders and claims also involve the use of estimates, and revenues associated with unapproved change orders and claims are included when realization is probable and amounts can be reliably determined. The Company did not recognize any material amounts associated with claims and unapproved change orders during the periods presented.
The current liability, “Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts,” represents billings to customers in excess of revenues recognized.
Concentration of Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of contracts receivable including retainage. In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers and does not generally require collateral. Concentrations of credit risk associated with these receivables are monitored on an ongoing basis. The Company has not historically experienced significant credit losses, due primarily to management’s assessment of customers’ credit ratings. The Company principally deals with recurring customers, state and local governments and well-known local companies whose reputations are known to management. The Company performs credit checks for significant new customers and generally requires progress payments for significant projects. The Company generally has the ability to file liens against the property if payments are not made on a timely basis. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s contracts receivable including retainage, net balance at September 30, 2018 or September 30, 2017.
Projects performed for various Departments of Transportation accounted for 42.9% and 41.9% of consolidated revenues for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017, respectively. Two customers accounted for more than 10% of consolidated revenues for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017, as follows:
% of Consolidated
for the Fiscal
Year Ended September 30,
Alabama Department of Transportation
North Carolina Department of Transportation

The Company’s inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the average cost method. The cost of inventory includes the cost of material, labor, trucking and other equipment costs associated with procuring and transporting materials to asphalt plants for production and delivery to customers. Inventories consist primarily of raw materials, including asphalt cement, aggregate and millings that the Company expects to utilize on construction projects within one year.
Revenues and Cost Recognition
Revenues from the Company’s contracts are recognized under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost method). Changes in job performance, job conditions, and estimated profitability, including those arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in favorable or unfavorable revisions to estimated costs, revenues and gross profit, and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined. Revisions in estimates related to amounts recorded in prior periods resulted in the Company recording net increases in revenues of $6.9 million and $4.6 million during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017, respectively.
The accuracy of revenues and cost of revenues reported on the consolidated financial statements depends on, among other things, management’s estimates of total costs to complete projects. Management believes the Company maintains reasonable estimates based on prior experience; however, many factors contribute to changes in estimates of contract costs. Accordingly, estimates made with respect to uncompleted projects are subject to change as each project progresses and better estimates of contract costs become available. All contract costs are recorded as incurred, and revisions to estimated total costs are reflected as soon as the obligation to perform is determined. Provisions are recognized for the full amount of estimated losses on uncompleted contracts whenever evidence indicates that the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue, regardless of the stage of completion. When the Company incurs additional costs related to work performed by subcontractors, the Company may have contractual provisions to back charge the subcontractors for those costs. A reduction to costs related to back charges is recognized when the estimated recovery is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
Contract costs include direct labor and material, subcontractors, direct overhead costs and equipment costs (primarily depreciation, fuel, maintenance and repairs).
Fair Value Measurements
Management applies fair value measurement guidance to its impairment analyses for tangible and intangible assets. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Inputs used to measure fair value are classified using the following hierarchy:
Level 1. Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2. Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through corroboration with observable market data.
Level 3. Inputs are unobservable for the asset or liability and include situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability. The inputs used in the determination of fair value are based upon the best information available under the circumstances and may require significant management judgment or estimation.
The Company endeavors to utilize the best available information in measuring fair value.
The Company’s financial instruments include cash, contracts receivable including retainage, and accounts payable reflected as current assets and current liabilities on its Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017. Due to the short-term nature of these instruments, management considers their carrying value to approximate their fair value.
The Company also has term loans and a revolving credit facility as described in Note 12 - Debt. The carrying value of amounts outstanding under these credit facilities is reflected as long-term debt, net of current maturities and current maturities of debt on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017. Due to the variable rate or short-term nature of these instruments, management considers their carrying value to approximate their fair value.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements for operating leases are amortized over the lesser of the term of the related lease or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Quarry reserves are depleted in accordance with the units-of-production method as aggregate is extracted, using the initial allocation of cost based on proven and probable reserves. Routine repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Asset improvements are capitalized at cost and amortized over the remaining useful life of the related asset.
The useful lives of property, plant and equipment categories are as follows:
Estimated Useful Life
Land and improvements
Land, unlimited; improvements, 15-25 years
Quarry reserves
Based on depletion
5 - 39 years
Asphalt plants
3 - 20 years
Construction equipment
3 - 10 years
Furniture and fixtures
5 - 10 years
Leasehold improvements
The shorter of 15 years or the remaining lease term

Management periodically assesses the estimated useful life over which assets are depreciated, depleted or amortized. If the analysis warrants a change in the estimated useful life of property, plant and equipment, management will reduce the estimated useful life and depreciate, deplete or amortize the carrying value prospectively over the shorter remaining useful life.
The carrying amounts of assets sold or retired and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated in the period of disposal, and the resulting gains and losses are included in the results of operations during the same period.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The carrying value of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets subject to amortization is evaluated whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets, or an asset group, may not be recoverable. Events or circumstances that might cause management to perform impairment testing include, but are not limited to, a significant decrease in the market price of an asset, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used or in its physical condition, an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of an asset, an operating or cash flow performance combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of an asset, and an expectation that an asset will be disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life. If indicators of potential impairment are present, management performs a recoverability test and, if necessary, records an impairment loss. If the total estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be generated from the use and ultimate disposition of an asset or asset group is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded in the Company’s results of operations, measured as the amount required to reduce the carrying value to fair value. Fair value is determined in accordance with the best available information based on the hierarchy described under "Fair Value Measurements" above. For example, the Company would first seek to identify quoted prices or other observable market data. If observable data is not available, management would apply the best available information under the circumstances to a technique such as a discounted cash flow model to estimate fair value. Impairment analysis involves estimates and the use of assumptions in connection with judgments made in forecasting long-term estimated inflows and outflows resulting from the use and ultimate disposition of an asset, and determining the ultimate useful lives of assets. Actual results may differ from these estimates using different assumptions, which could materially impact the results of an impairment assessment.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Other intangible assets consist of an indefinite-lived name license in connection with a business acquired, and finite-lived assets including a non-compete agreement, customer relationships and construction backlog, each acquired in business acquisitions. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. In addition, management evaluates whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life. Judgments regarding indicators of potential impairment are based on market conditions and operational performance of the business.
Annually, on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter, management performs an analysis of the carrying value of goodwill at its reporting units for potential impairment. In accordance with GAAP, the Company may assess its goodwill for impairment initially using a qualitative approach to determine whether conditions exist to indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If management concludes, based on its assessment of relevant events, facts and circumstances, that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s carrying value is greater than its fair value, then a quantitative analysis will be performed to determine whether there is any impairment. The Company may also elect to initially perform a quantitative analysis instead of starting with a qualitative assessment. The quantitative assessment for goodwill requires comparing the carrying value of a reporting unit, including goodwill, to its fair value using the multiple period discounting method under the income approach and market approach. The income approach uses a discounted cash flow model, which involves significant estimates and assumptions, including preparation of revenues and profitability growth forecasts, selection of a discount rate, and selection of a terminal year multiple, to estimate fair value. Management’s assessment of facts and circumstances at each analysis date could cause these assumptions to change. If the fair value of the respective reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered to be impaired, and no further testing is required. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to write down goodwill to its fair value and is recorded in the Company’s results of operations. The Company performed a quantitative analysis of goodwill during fiscal year 2018 and fiscal year 2017 and determined that the fair value of each of its reporting units exceeded its carrying value, and thus concluded that the carrying value of goodwill was not impaired at September 30, 2018 or September 30, 2017. Accordingly, no further analysis was required or performed.
Management also performs an annual assessment, on the first day of the fiscal fourth quarter, of the carrying value of its indefinite-lived intangible assets other than goodwill. Management tests indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment by comparing their carrying value to their estimated fair value. An impairment loss is recorded in the Company’s results of operations to the extent the carrying value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value. Similar to the assessment of goodwill, events and changes in circumstances could cause management to utilize different assumptions in subsequent evaluations, which could materially impact the results of an impairment assessment. Management concluded that the carrying value of the Company's indefinite-lived intangible asset other than goodwill was not impaired at September 30, 2018 or September 30, 2017.
Deferred Debt Issuance Costs
Costs directly associated with obtaining debt financing are deferred and amortized over the term of the related debt agreement. Unamortized amounts related to long-term debt are reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related long-term debt liability.
Equity Issuance Costs
The Company capitalizes certain third-party fees that are directly associated with in-process equity offerings. These amounts are recorded as prepaid expenses and included in other current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet until the offering is consummated, suspended or abandoned. If efforts to complete an equity offering are suspended or abandoned, the capitalized costs are charged to general and administrative expenses in the period the offering is suspended or abandoned. When an offering is completed, the capitalized costs are recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital generated by the offering. At September 30, 2017, $2.2 million of capitalized equity issuance costs were included in other current assets. Upon the successful completion of the IPO in May 2018, the equity issuance costs balance of $6.3 million was reclassified from prepaid expenses to additional paid-in capital.
Comprehensive Income
Comprehensive income is a measure of net income and all other changes in equity that result from transactions other than transactions with stockholders. Management has determined that net income is the Company’s only component of comprehensive income. Accordingly, there is no difference between net income and comprehensive income.
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes includes federal and state income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the fiscal years in which the temporary differences are expected to be reversed or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the realization of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented on a net basis by taxing authority and classified as non-current on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The Company classifies income tax-related interest and penalties as interest expense and other expenses, respectively.
Equity-based Incentive Plans
Compensation costs related to equity-classified share-based awards are recognized on the consolidated financial statements based on grant date fair value. Compensation cost for graded-vesting awards is recognized ratably over the respective vesting periods.
Accrued Insurance Costs
The Company carries insurance policies to cover various risks, including primarily general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation, under which it is liable to reimburse the insurance company for a portion of each claim paid. The amount for which the Company is liable for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims ranges from $100,000 to $500,000 per occurrence. Management accrues for probable losses, both reported and unreported, that are reasonably estimable using actuarial methods based on historic trends modified, if necessary, by recent events. Changes in loss assumptions caused by changes in actual experience would affect the assessment of the ultimate liability and could have an effect on the Company’s operating results and financial position up to $500,000 per occurrence for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims.
The Company provides employee medical insurance under policies that are both fixed-premium, fully-insured policies and self-insured policies that are administered by the insurance company. Under the self-insured policies, the Company is liable to reimburse the insurance company for actual claims paid plus an administrative fee. The Company purchases separate stop-loss insurance that limits the individual participant claim loss to amounts ranging from $75,000 to $160,000.
In addition to the retention items noted above, the Company’s insurance provider requires the Company to maintain a standby letter of credit. This letter of credit serves as a guarantee by the banking institution to pay the Company’s insurance provider the incurred claim costs attributable to general liability, workers’ compensation and automobile liability claims, up to the amount stated in the standby letter of credit, in the event that these claims are not paid by the Company.
Earnings per Share
As described in Note 2 – Initial Public Offering, the Company completed an IPO and Reclassification of its common stock during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018. Prior to the Reclassification, all net income of the Company was attributable to the holders of shares of common stock immediately prior to the Reclassification. During the period beginning from the Reclassification through the IPO, all net income of the Company was attributable to holders of Class B common stock. Since the IPO, all net income of the Company is attributable equally, on a per share basis, to the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of aggregate shares of pre-Reclassification common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock, as applicable for the respective periods, calculated on a post-split basis, during the respective periods. The calculation of basic earnings per share excludes shares of unvested restricted stock. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of aggregate shares of pre-Reclassification common stock, Class A common stock, Class B common stock and potential dilutive common shares determined using the treasury method, calculated on a post-split basis as applicable for the respective periods. Securities that are anti-dilutive are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share.
Segment Reporting and Reporting Units
The Company operates in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina through its wholly owned legal entity subsidiaries. Each of these entities was acquired as a platform operating company and performs essentially the same operations, primarily infrastructure and road construction.
Management determined that the Company functions as a single operating segment, and thus reports as a single reportable segment. This determination is based on rules prescribed by GAAP applied to the manner in which management operates the Company. In particular, management assessed the discrete financial information routinely reviewed by the Company’s Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”), its Chief Executive Officer, to monitor the Company’s operating performance and support decisions regarding allocation of resources to its operations. Specifically, performance is continuously monitored at the consolidated level and at the individual contract level to timely identify deviations from expected results. Resource allocations are based on the capacity of the Company’s operating facilities to pursue new project opportunities, including reallocation of assets that are underutilized from time to time at a certain operating facility to another operating facility where additional resources might be required to fully meet demand. Other factors further supporting this conclusion include substantial similarities throughout all of the Company’s operations with respect to services provided, type of customers, sourcing of materials and manufacturing and delivery methodologies.
Management further determined that the Company’s five platform operating companies represent the Company’s reporting units for purposes of assessing potential impairment of goodwill. These legal entities represent significant acquisitions that occurred over time in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and North Carolina pursuant to the Company’s strategic growth strategy. Each platform company is managed by its president, who has primary responsibility for the respective operating company. Collectively, these presidents are directly accountable to, and maintain regular contact with, the CODM as a team to discuss operating activities, financial results, forecasts, and operating plans for the Company’s single operating segment.