Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationThe consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These interim consolidated statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which permit reduced disclosure for interim periods. The Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2019 was derived from audited financial statements for the fiscal year then ended, but does not include all necessary disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) with respect to annual financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited consolidated financial statements include all recurring adjustments and normal accruals necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the dates and periods presented. These consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited annual consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 (the “2019 Form 10-K”). Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full fiscal year or for any future period.
Management’s Estimates
Management’s Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the recorded amounts of assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity, revenues and expenses during the reporting period, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Estimates are used in accounting for items such as recognition of revenues and cost of revenues, goodwill and other intangible assets, valuation of operating lease right-of-use assets, allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation allowances related to income taxes, accruals for potential liabilities related to lawsuits or insurance claims, and the fair value of equity-based compensation awards. Estimates are continually evaluated based on historical information and actual experience; however, actual results could differ from these estimates.
A description of certain critical accounting policies of the Company is presented below. Additional critical accounting policies and the underlying judgments and uncertainties are described in the notes to the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements included in its 2019 Form 10-K.
Emerging Growth Company
Emerging Growth Company
The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) enacted in April 2012. As an emerging growth company, the Company could have taken advantage of an exemption that would have allowed the Company to wait to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until the effective date of such standards for private companies. However, the Company has irrevocably elected to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a new or revised standard has a different effective date for public and private companies, the Company is required to adopt the standard at the effective date applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists principally of currency on hand and demand deposits at commercial banks. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are so near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in value because of changes in interest rates. Cash equivalents include investments with original maturities of three months or less. The Company maintains demand accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit at several banks. From time to time, the account balances have exceeded the maximum available federal deposit insurance coverage limit. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and regularly monitors its credit risk.
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts receivable are generally based on amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled, and amounts retained by the customer pending completion of a project. It is common in the Company’s industry for a small portion of either progress billings or the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until the Company completes a project to the satisfaction of the customer in accordance with contract terms. Such amounts, defined as retainage, represent a contract asset and are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as “Contracts receivable including retainage, net”. Based on the Company’s experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retainage balances are generally collected within one year of the completion of the project.

The carrying value of contracts receivable including retainage, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the allowance for doubtful accounts and an adjustment of the contract receivable.
Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Billing practices for the Company’s contracts are governed by the contract terms of each project based on (i) progress toward completion approved by the owner, (ii) achievement of milestones or (iii) pre-agreed schedules. Billings do not necessarily correlate with revenues recognized under the cost-to-cost input method (formerly known as the percentage-of-completion method). The Company records contract assets and contract liabilities to account for these differences in timing.
The contract asset, “Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts,” arises when the Company recognizes revenues for services performed under its construction projects, but the Company is not yet entitled to bill the customer under the terms of the contract. Amounts billed to customers are excluded from this asset and reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as “Contracts receivable including retainage, net”. Included in costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for (i) errors, (ii) changes in contract specifications or design, (iii) contract change orders in dispute, unapproved as to scope and price, or (iv) other customer-related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (such as claims). Such amounts are recorded to the extent that the amount can be reasonably estimated and recovery is probable. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Unapproved change orders and claims also involve the use of estimates, and revenues associated with unapproved change orders and claims are included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty is resolved. The Company did not recognize any material amounts associated with claims and unapproved change orders during the periods presented.

The contract liability, “Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts,” represents the Company’s obligation to transfer to a customer goods or services for which the Company has been paid by the customer or for which the Company has billed the customer under the terms of the contract. Revenue for future services reflected in this account are recognized, and the liability is reduced, as the Company subsequently satisfies the performance obligation under the contract.
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts and billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are typically resolved within one year and are not considered significant financing components.
Concentration of Risks Concentration of RisksFinancial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of contracts receivable including retainage. In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers and does not generally require collateral. The Company monitors concentrations of credit risk associated with these receivables on an ongoing basis. The Company has not historically experienced significant credit losses, due primarily to management’s assessment of customers’ credit ratings. The Company principally deals with recurring customers, state and local governments and well-known local companies whose reputations are known to management. The Company performs credit checks for significant new customers and generally requires progress payments for significant projects. The Company generally has the ability to file liens against the property if payments are not made on a timely basis.
Revenue From Contract with Customers
Revenues from Contracts with Customers
The Company derives all of its revenues from contracts with its customers, predominantly by performing construction services for both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports and commercial and residential developments. These projects are performed for a mix of federal, state, municipal and private customers. In addition, the Company derives revenues from the sale of construction materials, including HMA, aggregates, liquid asphalt cement and ready-mix concrete to third-party public and private customers pursuant to contracts with those customers. The following table reflects, for the periods presented, (i) revenues generated from public infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to public customers and (ii) revenues generated from private infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to private customers.
% of Consolidated Revenues For the Three Months Ended December 31,
2019    2018   
Private 39.4  % 32.1  %
Public 60.6  % 67.9  %
Revenues derived from construction projects are recognized over time as the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring to the customer control of the asset created or enhanced by the project. Recognition of revenues and cost of revenues for construction projects requires significant judgment by management, including, among other things, estimating total costs expected to be incurred to complete a project and measuring progress toward completion. Management reviews contract estimates regularly to assess revisions of estimated costs to complete a project and measurement of progress toward completion.
Management believes the Company maintains reasonable estimates based on prior experience; however, many factors contribute to changes in estimates of contract costs. Accordingly, estimates made with respect to uncompleted projects are subject to change as each project progresses and better estimates of contract costs become available. All contract costs are recorded as incurred, and revisions to estimated total costs are reflected as soon as the obligation to perform is determined. Provisions are recognized for the full amount of estimated losses on uncompleted contracts whenever evidence indicates that the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue, regardless of the stage of completion. When the Company incurs additional costs related to work performed by subcontractors, the Company may be able to utilize contractual provisions to back charge the subcontractors for those costs. A reduction to costs related to back charges is recognized when the estimated recovery is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Contract costs consist of (i) direct costs on contracts, including labor, materials, and amounts payable to subcontractors and (ii) indirect costs related to contract performance, such as insurance, employee benefits, and equipment (primarily depreciation, fuel, maintenance and repairs).
Progress toward completion is estimated using the input method, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred through the measurement date to total estimated costs required to complete the project (cost-to-cost method). The Company believes this method best depicts the transfer of goods and services to the customer because it represents satisfaction of the Company’s performance obligation under the contract, which occurs as the Company incurs costs. The Company measures percentage of completion based on the performance of a single performance obligation under its construction projects. Each of the Company’s construction contracts represents a single performance obligation to complete a defined construction project. This is because goods and services promised for delivery to a customer are not distinct, as the customer cannot benefit from any individual portion of the services on its own. All deliverables under a contract are part of a project defined by a customer and represent a series of integrated goods and services that have the same pattern of delivery to the customer and use the same measure of progress toward satisfaction of the performance obligation as the customer’s asset is created or enhanced by the Company. The Company’s obligation is not satisfied until the entire project is complete.
Revenue recognized during a reporting period is based on the cost-to-cost input method applied to the total transaction price, including adjustments for variable consideration, such as liquidated damages, penalties or bonuses, related to the timeliness or quality of project performance. The Company includes variable consideration in the estimated transaction price at the most likely amount to which the Company expects to be entitled or the most likely amount the Company expects to incur, in the case of liquidated damages or penalties. Such amounts are included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty is resolved. The Company accounts for changes to the estimated transaction price using a cumulative catch-up adjustment.
The majority of the Company’s public construction contracts are fixed unit price contracts. Under fixed unit price contracts, the Company is committed to providing materials or services required by a contract at fixed unit prices (for example, dollars per ton of asphalt placed). The Company’s private customer contracts are primarily fixed total price contracts, also known as lump sum contracts, which require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price. Contract cost is recorded as incurred, and revisions in contract revenue and cost estimates are reflected in the accounting period when known. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those changes arising from contract change orders, penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to estimated revenues and cost and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Change orders are modifications of an original contract that effectively change the existing provisions of the contract and become part of the single performance obligation that is partially satisfied at the date of the contract modification. This is because goods and services promised under change orders are generally not distinct from the remaining goods and services under the existing contract, due to the significant integration of services performed in the context of the contract. Accordingly, change orders are generally accounted for as a modification of the existing contract and single performance obligation. We account for the modification using a cumulative catch-up adjustment. Either the Company or its customers may initiate change orders, which may include changes in specifications or designs, manner of performance, facilities, equipment, materials, sites and period of completion of the work.
Revenues derived from the sale of HMA, aggregates, ready-mix concrete, and liquid asphalt are recognized at the point in time at which control of the product is transferred to the customer. Generally, that point in time is when the customer accepts delivery at its facility or receives product in its own transport vehicles from one of the Company’s HMA plants. Upon purchase, the Company generally provides an invoice or similar document detailing the goods transferred to the customer. The Company generally offers payment terms customary in the industry, which typically require payment ranging from point-of-sale to 30 days following purchase.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes includes federal and state income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the fiscal years in which the temporary differences are expected to be reversed or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the realization of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented on a net basis by taxing authority and classified as non-current on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The Company classifies income tax-related interest and penalties as interest expense and other expenses, respectively.
Earnings per Share Earnings per ShareBasic net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per common share attributable to common stockholders is the same as basic net income per share attributable to common stockholders, but includes dilutive unvested stock awards using the treasury stock method.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842

ASC Topic 842, Leases (“Topic 842”) requires lessees to recognize operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities on the balance sheet as described below. Prior to adoption of Topic 842, operating leases were expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income, and the Company did not recognize operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities on its Consolidated Balance Sheet.
The Company adopted Topic 842 effective October 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective transition approach with no prior-period retrospective adjustments. As a result, on the adoption date, the Company recognized (i) a net cumulative decrease to retained earnings of $0.2 million, (ii) additional operating lease right-of-use assets of $9.1 million, (iii) current operating lease liabilities of $2.9 million and (iv) non-current operating lease liabilities of $6.4 million. The Company elected to apply optional practical expedients that allowed the Company to forego reassessments of (i) the classification of leases existing at the date of adoption, (ii) the initial direct costs of any existing leases and (iii) whether any expired or existing contracts are, or contain, leases.
In connection with the adoption of Topic 842, the Company implemented several accounting policies relating to the identification and measurement of operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities. At the inception of a contractual arrangement, the Company determines whether a contract contains a lease by assessing whether the contract conveys to the Company the right to control the use of an identified asset in exchange for consideration over a period of time. If so, the Company measures and records an operating lease liability equal to the present value of the future lease payments. Because most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company’s incremental borrowing rate is used in determining the present value of lease payments. The amount of the operating lease right-of-use asset consists of: (i) the amount of the initial measurement of the operating lease liability; (ii) any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, minus any lease incentives received; and (iii) any initial direct costs incurred. The present value calculation may account for options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the option.
The Company has elected not to apply the recognition requirements to short-term leases (those with terms of 12 months or less) or leases to explore for or use minerals. Instead, for these types of leases, the Company recognizes lease expense in the Consolidated Statements of Income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.