Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
The use and consumption of our products and services fluctuate due to seasonality. Our products are used, and our construction operations and production facilities are located, outdoors. Therefore, seasonal changes and other weather-related conditions, in particular extended snowy, rainy or cold weather in the winter, spring or fall and major weather events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms and heavy snows, can adversely affect our business and operations through a decline in both the use of our products and demand for our services. In addition, construction materials production and shipment levels follow activity in the construction industry, which typically occurs in the spring, summer and fall. Warmer and drier weather during the third and fourth quarters of our fiscal year typically result in higher activity and revenues during those quarters. The first and second quarters of our fiscal year typically have lower levels of activity due to adverse weather conditions.
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationThe consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These interim consolidated statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), which permit reduced disclosure for interim periods. The Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2018 was derived from audited financial statements for the fiscal year then ended, but does not include all necessary disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("GAAP") with respect to annual financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited consolidated financial statements include all recurring adjustments and normal accruals necessary for a fair presentation of the Company's financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the dates and periods presented. These consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with the Company's audited annual consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 (the "2018 Form 10-K"). Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full fiscal year or for any future period.
Management’s Estimates
Management's Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the recorded amounts of assets, liabilities, stockholders' equity, revenues and expenses during the reporting period, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Estimates are used in accounting for items such as recognition of revenues and cost of revenues, goodwill and other intangible assets, allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation allowances related to income taxes, accruals for potential liabilities related to lawsuits or insurance claims, and the fair value of equity-based compensation awards. Estimates are continually evaluated based on historical information and actual experience; however, actual results could differ from these estimates.
A description of certain critical accounting policies of the Company is presented below. Additional critical accounting policies and the underlying judgments and uncertainties are described in the notes to the Company's annual consolidated financial statements included in its 2018 Form 10-K.
Emerging Growth Company
Emerging Growth Company
The Company is an "emerging growth company" as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the "JOBS Act"), enacted in April 2012. As an emerging growth company, the Company could have taken advantage of an exemption that would have allowed the Company to wait to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until the effective date of such standards for private companies. However, the JOBS Act provides that a company may elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different effective dates for public and private companies, the Company is required to adopt the new or revised standard at the effective date applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and Cash EquivalentsCash consists principally of currency on hand and demand deposits at commercial banks. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are so near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in value because of changes in interest rates. Cash equivalents include investments with original maturities of three months or less. The Company maintains demand accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit at several banks.
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts Receivable Including Retainage, net
Contracts receivable are generally based on amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled, and amounts retained by the customer pending completion of a project. It is common in the Company's industry for a small portion of progress billings or the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until the Company completes a project to the satisfaction of the customer in accordance with contract terms. Such amounts, defined as retainage, represent a contract asset and are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as "Contracts receivable including retainage, net". Based on the Company's experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retainage balances are generally collected within one year of the completion of the project.
The carrying value of contracts receivable including retainage, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the allowance for doubtful accounts and an adjustment of the contract receivable.
Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Billing practices for the Company's contracts are governed by the contract terms of each project based on (i) progress toward completion approved by the owner, (ii) achievement of milestones or (iii) pre-agreed schedules. Billings do not necessarily correlate with revenues recognized under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. The Company records contract assets and contract liabilities to account for these differences in timing.
The contract asset, "Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts," arises when the Company recognizes revenues for services performed under its construction projects, but the Company is not yet entitled to bill the customer under the terms of the contract. Amounts billed to customers are excluded from this asset and reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as "Contracts receivable including retainage, net". Included in costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for (i) errors, (ii) changes in contract specifications or design, (iii) contract change orders in dispute, unapproved as to scope and price, or (iv) other customer-related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (such as claims). Such amounts are recorded at estimated net realizable value when realization is probable and can be reasonably estimated. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Unapproved change orders and claims also involve the use of estimates, and revenues associated with unapproved change orders and claims are included when realization is probable and amounts can be reliably determined. The Company did not recognize any material amounts associated with claims and unapproved change orders during the periods presented.
The contract liability, "Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts," represents the Company's obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has been paid by the customer or for which the Company has billed the customer under the terms of the contract. Revenue for future services reflected in this account are recognized, and the liability is reduced, as the Company subsequently satisfies the performance obligation under the contract.
Concentration of Risks Concentration of RisksFinancial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of contracts receivable including retainage. In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers and does not generally require collateral. Concentrations of credit risk associated with these receivables are monitored on an ongoing basis. The Company has not historically experienced significant credit losses, due primarily to management's assessment of customers' credit ratings. The Company principally deals with recurring customers, state and local governments and well-known local companies whose reputations are known to management. The Company performs credit checks for significant new customers and generally requires progress payments for significant projects. The Company generally has the ability to file liens against the property if payments are not made on a timely basis.
Revenue from Contract with Customers
Revenues from Contracts with Customers
The Company derives all of its revenues from contracts with its customers, predominantly by performing construction services for both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports and commercial and residential developments. These projects are performed for a mix of federal, state, municipal and private customers. In addition, the Company generates revenues from the sale of construction materials including HMA, aggregates, liquid asphalt and ready-mix concrete to third-party public and private customers pursuant to contracts with those customers. The following table reflects, for the periods presented, (i) revenues generated from public infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to public customers and (ii) revenues generated from private infrastructure construction projects and the sale of construction materials to private customers.
For the Three Months Ended June 30, For the Nine Months Ended June 30,
2019  2018  2019  2018 
Private $ 66,207  $ 56,293  $ 166,193  $ 148,525 
Public $ 161,083  $ 138,782  $ 379,728  $ 315,870 

Revenues derived from construction projects are recognized over time, using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, as the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring control of the asset created or enhanced by the project to the customer. Recognition of revenues and cost of revenues for construction projects requires significant judgment by management, including, among other things, estimating total costs expected to be incurred to complete a project and measuring progress toward completion. Management reviews contract estimates regularly to assess revisions of estimated costs to complete a project and measurement of progress toward completion.
Management believes the Company maintains reasonable estimates based on prior experience; however, many factors contribute to changes in estimates of contract costs. Accordingly, estimates made with respect to uncompleted projects are subject to change as each project progresses and better estimates of contract costs become available. All contract costs are recorded as incurred, and revisions to estimated total costs are reflected as soon as the obligation to perform is determined. Provisions are recognized for the full amount of estimated losses on uncompleted contracts whenever evidence indicates that the estimated total cost of a contract exceeds its estimated total revenue, regardless of the stage of completion. When the Company incurs additional costs related to work performed by subcontractors, the Company may be able to utilize contractual provisions to back charge the subcontractors for those costs. A reduction to costs related to back charges is recognized when the estimated recovery is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Contract costs consist of (i) direct costs on contracts, including labor, materials, and amounts payable to subcontractors and
(ii) indirect costs related to contract performance, such as insurance, employee benefits, and equipment (primarily depreciation, fuel, maintenance and repairs).
Progress toward completion is estimated using the input method, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred through the measurement date to total estimated costs required to complete the project (cost-to-cost method). The Company believes this method best depicts the transfer of goods and services to the customer because it represents satisfaction of the Company's performance obligation under the contract, which occurs as the Company incurs costs. The Company measures percentage of completion based on the performance of a single performance obligation under its construction projects. Each of the Company's construction contracts represents a single performance obligation to complete a defined construction project. This is because goods and services promised for delivery to a customer are not distinct, as the customer cannot benefit from any individual portion of the services on its own. All deliverables under a contract are part of a project defined by a customer and represent a series of integrated goods and services that have the same pattern of delivery to the customer and use the same measure of progress toward satisfaction of the performance obligation as the customer's asset is created or enhanced by the Company. The Company's obligation is not satisfied until the entire project is complete.
Revenue recognized during a reporting period is based on the estimated incremental percentage-of-completion applied to the total contract price, including adjustments for variable consideration such as liquidated damages, penalties or bonuses related to the timeliness or quality of project performance. Such adjustments are made to reflect the most likely amount of consideration management expects the Company to be entitled to at the completion of the contract, based on the best information available to the Company. The basis for total contract price is a stated amount in the contract, which is generally either fixed unit price or fixed total price, as described below. The Company adjusts the estimated contract price to include variable consideration to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur or when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. Total contract price is adjusted to reflect expected liquidated damages assessments or other penalties in the period the Company determines they will be incurred or when the customer imposes the penalty. Total contract price is adjusted to reflect contract bonus provisions related to timeliness or quality metrics when realization is probable and amounts can be reliably determined, which is generally when they are awarded by the customer. We account for changes in the measure of progress and changes to the estimated transaction price using a cumulative catch-up adjustment.
The majority of the Company's public construction contracts are fixed unit price contracts. Under fixed unit price contracts, the Company is committed to providing materials or services required by a contract at fixed unit prices (for example, dollars per ton of asphalt placed). The Company's private customer contracts are primarily fixed total price contracts, also known as lump sum contracts, which require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price. Contract cost is recorded as incurred, and revisions in contract revenue and cost estimates are reflected in the accounting period when known. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those changes arising from contract change orders, penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to estimated revenues and costs and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Change orders are modifications of an original contract that effectively change the existing provisions of the contract and become part of the single performance obligation that is partially satisfied at the date of the contract modification. This is because goods and services promised under change orders are generally not distinct from the remaining goods and services under the existing contract, due to the significant integration of services performed in the context of the contract. Accordingly, change orders are generally accounted for as a modification of the existing contract and single performance obligation. We account for the modification using a cumulative catch-up adjustment. Either the Company or its customers may initiate change orders, which may include changes in specifications or designs, manner of performance, facilities, equipment, materials, sites and period of completion of the work.
Revenues derived from the sale of HMA, aggregates, ready-mix concrete, and liquid asphalt are recognized at a point in time, which is when control of the product is transferred to the customer. Generally, that point in time is when the customer accepts delivery at its facility or receives product in its own transport vehicles from one of the Company's HMA plants. Upon purchase, the Company generally provides an invoice or similar document detailing the goods transferred to the customer. The Company generally offers payment terms customary in the industry, which typically require payment ranging from point-of-sale to 30 days following purchase.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes includes federal and state income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the fiscal years in which the temporary differences are expected to be reversed or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the realization of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented on a net basis by taxing authority and classified as non-current on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company classifies income tax-related interest and penalties as interest expense and other expenses, respectively.
Earnings per Share
Earnings per Share
As described in Note 8 – Equity, the Company completed an initial public offering (the "IPO") and reclassification (the "Reclassification") of its common stock during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, involving, among other things, a 25.2 to 1 split of shares of common stock (the "Stock Split") and the creation of a dual-class common stock structure. Prior to the Reclassification, all net income of the Company was attributable to the holders of shares of common stock immediately prior to the Reclassification. During the period beginning from the Reclassification through the IPO, all net income of the Company was attributable to holders of Class B common stock. Since the IPO, all net income of the Company has been attributable equally, on a per share basis, to the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of aggregate shares of pre-Reclassification common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock, as applicable for the respective periods, calculated on a post-Stock Split basis. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of aggregate shares of pre-Reclassification common stock, Class A common stock, Class B common stock and potential dilutive common shares determined using the treasury method, calculated on a post-Stock Split basis as applicable for the respective periods. Securities that are anti-dilutive are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) ("ASC 606"), which revises and consolidates current guidance, eliminates industry-specific revenue recognition guidance and establishes a comprehensive principle-based approach for determining revenue recognition. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity shall recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for providing those goods or services. Amendments of this update set forth a five-step revenue recognition model to be applied consistently to all contracts with customers, except those that are within the scope of other topics in the Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC"): (i) identify the contract with a customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The update also provides guidance regarding the recognition of costs related to obtaining and fulfilling customer contracts. This update also requires quantitative and qualitative disclosures sufficient to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including disclosures on significant judgments made when applying the guidance. The FASB subsequently amended ASC 606 on multiple occasions to, among other things, delay its effective date and clarify certain implementation guidance.
The update permits adoption using either (i) a full retrospective approach, under which all years included in the financial statements are presented under the revised guidance, or (ii) a modified retrospective approach, under which financial statements are prepared under the revised guidance for the year of adoption, but not for prior years. Under the latter method, entities recognize a cumulative adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings for contracts that still require performance by the entity at the date of adoption.
Management adopted this update for the Company's fiscal year beginning October 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective approach. The adoption of ASC 606 on October 1, 2018 did not result in a material impact that required recognition of a cumulative adjustment of the opening retained earnings balance for contracts that still required performance at September 30, 2018. Application of ASC 606 for the nine months ended June 30, 2019 had the following impact on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet at June 30, 2019 and Consolidated Statements of Income for the three and nine months ended June 30, 2019 (in thousands):
As Reported Impact of ASC 606 Without Application of ASC 606
At June 30, 2019
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts $ 14,043  $ (982) $ 15,025 
Inventories 37,069  1,205  35,864 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities 19,028  (29) 19,057 
Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts $ 32,344  $ 338  $ 32,006 
For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2019
Revenues $ 227,290  $ (343) $ 227,633 
Cost of revenues 189,198  311  188,887 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes 4,941  4,932 
Net income $ 17,202  $ (23) $ 17,225 
For the Nine Months Ended June 30, 2019
Revenues $ 545,921  $ (1,321) $ 547,242 
Cost of revenues 466,900  (1,205) 468,105 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes 8,080  (29) 8,109 
Net income $ 26,568  $ (87) $ 26,655 

The Company has refined its accounting policies and related internal controls affected by this update. Management's assessment of the Company's construction contracts under the new standard supports the recognition of revenue over time using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost method), which is consistent with the Company's historical revenue recognition practices. As such, the Company's construction contracts continue to be recognized over time considering the continuous transfer of control to its customers during the performance of construction projects. The Company also enhanced its disclosures regarding judgments and estimates used by management in the application of ASC 606 in Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business ("ASC 805"). The amendments of this update refine the definition of a business. Prior to this update, guidance in ASC 805 defined a business as having an integrated set of assets along with three elements or activities: inputs, processes, and outputs (collectively referred to as a "set"). The amendments of this update provided a framework to assist in the evaluation of when a set is not a business. If substantially all of the fair value of gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. If that threshold is not met, the Company must perform further analysis to determine whether the set is a business. At a minimum, the set must include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. The Company adopted this update for the Company’s fiscal year beginning October 1, 2018 and applied the guidance to acquisitions during the second quarter of the fiscal year ending September 30, 2019 as described in Note 4 - Business Acquisitions and Note 7 - Property, Plant and Equipment.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which becomes effective for the Company on October 1, 2019. The standard requires that lessees present right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. The Company’s implementation efforts are focused on accounting policy and disclosure updates and system enhancements required to meet the new standard. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.