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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             .
Commission file number:  001-38479
CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
26-0758017
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
290 Healthwest Drive, Suite 2
Dothan, Alabama 36303
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (ZIP Code)
(334) 673-9763
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.001ROADThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(Nasdaq Global Select Market)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.   
 
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    




If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on March 31, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $1,085,926,184.

As of November 27, 2023, the registrant had 43,711,058 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.001, and 8,998,511 shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.001, outstanding. 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 in connection with the registrant’s 2024 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.




Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
Cybersecurity
PART II
Reserved
Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
PART III
PART IV



Table of Contents
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements related to future events, business strategy, future performance, future operations, backlog, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management. All statements other than statements of historical fact may be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are often, but not always, identified by the use of words such as “seek,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “continue,” “estimate,” “expect,” “may,” “will,” “project,” “predict,” “potential,” “target,” “intend,” “could,” “might,” “should,” “believe,” “outlook” and similar expressions or their negative. Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on management’s belief, based on currently available information, as to the outcome and timing of future events. These statements involve estimates, assumptions, known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements. When evaluating forward-looking statements, you should consider the risk factors and other cautionary statements described below under the heading “Risk Factors.” We believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements contained in this report are reasonable, but no assurance can be given that these expectations will prove to be correct. Important factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
declines in public infrastructure construction and reductions in government funding, including the funding by transportation authorities and other state and local agencies;
risks related to our operating strategy;
competition for projects in our local markets;
risks associated with our capital-intensive business;
government inquiries, requirements and initiatives, including those related to funding for public infrastructure construction, land use, environmental, health and safety matters, and government contracting requirements and other laws and regulations;
unfavorable economic conditions and restrictive financing markets;
our ability to successfully identify, manage and integrate acquisitions;
our ability to obtain sufficient bonding capacity to undertake certain projects;
our ability to accurately estimate the overall risks, requirements or costs when we bid on or negotiate contracts that are ultimately awarded to us;
the cancellation of a significant number of contracts or our disqualification from bidding for new contracts;
risks related to adverse weather conditions;
climate change and related laws and regulations;
our substantial indebtedness and the restrictions imposed on us by the terms thereof;
our ability to manage our supply chain in a manner that ensures that we are able to obtain adequate raw materials, equipment and essential supplies;
our ability to retain key personnel and maintain satisfactory labor relations, and to manage or mitigate any labor shortages, turnover and labor cost increases;
the impact of inflation on costs of labor, raw materials and other items that are critical to our business, including fuel, concrete and steel;
unfavorable developments affecting the banking and financial services industry;
property damage and other claims and insurance coverage issues;
the outcome of litigation or disputes, including employment-related, workers’ compensation and breach of contract claims;
risks related to our information technology systems and infrastructure, including cybersecurity incidents;
our ability to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; and
1

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other events outside of our control.
These factors are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors could also cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. Our future results will depend upon various other risks and uncertainties, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors.” All forward-looking statements attributable to us are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date on which any such statement is made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
2

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PART I
Item 1. Business
Overview
We are a civil infrastructure company that specializes in the construction and maintenance of roadways across Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Through our wholly owned subsidiaries, we provide a variety of products and services to both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports, and commercial and residential developments. Consistent with our vertical integration strategy, our primary operations consist of (i) manufacturing and distributing hot mix asphalt (“HMA”) for both internal use and sales to third parties in connection with construction projects, (ii) paving activities, including the construction of roadway base layers and application of asphalt pavement, (iii) site development, including the installation of utility and drainage systems, (iv) mining aggregates, such as sand, gravel and construction stone, that are used as raw materials in the production of HMA and for sales to third parties, and (v) distributing liquid asphalt cement for both internal use and sales to third parties in connection with HMA production.
Construction Partners, Inc. was formed as a Delaware corporation in 2007 as a holding company to facilitate an acquisition growth strategy in the HMA paving and construction industry.
As used in this report, the terms “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Construction Partners, Inc. and its subsidiaries, except when the context requires that those terms mean only the parent company or a particular subsidiary. 
2023 Fiscal Year Developments
Acquisitions. During the 2023 fiscal year, we completed five acquisitions across four states, adding to or expanding our operations in Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. As a result of these acquisitions, we added eight asphalt plants and a diverse fleet of equipment and vehicles, as well as skilled construction professionals. The total transaction consideration for these acquisitions was approximately $92.0 million. We also disposed of a quarry in North Carolina, resulting in total cash proceeds of $37.0 million and a gain on the facility exchange of $5.4 million. For further discussion regarding these transactions, see Note 4 - Business Acquisitions to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
Inflationary and Supply Chain Trends. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we continued to experience an upward trend in certain inflation-sensitive inputs for our products and services, including upward pressure on wages and increases in the cost of raw materials used to produce HMA, such as liquid asphalt and aggregate materials. We also experienced some disruptions from subcontractors, materials suppliers, equipment manufacturers and others in our supply chain, although to a lesser extent than in recent years. We have been able to mitigate some of the effects of inflation, supply chain disruptions and labor constraints on our business by increasing prices for our products and including the anticipated cost increases in the construction projects we bid. However, we are limited in our ability to pass through increased costs for projects already in our backlog and, under those circumstances, may be unable to recoup losses or diminished profit margins by passing these costs through to our customers.
Our Industry
We operate in the large and growing highway and road construction industry and specifically within the asphalt paving materials and services segment. Asphalt paving mix is the most common roadway material used today due to its cost effectiveness, durability and reusability, and minimized traffic disruption during paving, as compared to concrete. Recent growth in our industry has been driven by federal, state and local Department of Transportation (“DOT”) budgets, which annually earmark amounts for transportation and infrastructure spending. The federal Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (the “FAST Act”), which was signed into law in 2015, provided funding for surface transportation infrastructure through September 30, 2020, and a continuing resolution approved in October 2020 extended the FAST Act surface transportation programs by one year and added $13.6 billion to the federal Highway Trust Fund. In November 2021, the federal Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (the “IIJA”) was signed into law. The IIJA provides for $548 billion in new infrastructure spending over five years through a reauthorization of traditional surface transportation programs and additional funding for highways, bridges and airports, among other things. In addition, certain states within our markets have in recent years approved legislation that supports funding for construction of local road, bridge and transit projects. The non-discretionary nature of highway and road construction services and materials supports stable and consistent industry funding. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 provides funding for numerous projects and initiatives relevant to the surface transportation industry, including grants for safety and environmental improvements, incentives for the use of construction materials and products with lower levels of embodied greenhouse gas emissions, and streamlined environmental review processes for proposed projects.
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Projects and Customers
We provide construction products and services to both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports, and commercial and residential sites in the southeastern United States. We provide a wide range of large sitework construction, including site development, paving, and utility and drainage systems construction, and supply the HMA required for the projects. Our projects consist of both new construction and maintenance services. Publicly funded projects and third-party sales accounted for approximately 63%, and privately funded projects and third-party sales accounted for approximately 37%, of our fiscal 2023 revenues. Our public customers include federal agencies, state DOTs and local municipalities. Our private clients include commercial and residential developers and businesses.
Our largest customers are state DOTs. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, the Florida DOT and North Carolina DOT accounted for 10.7% and 10.5% of our revenues, respectively. Other than the Florida DOT and North Carolina DOT, no other customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenues for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, and projects performed for all DOTs accounted for 36.2% of our revenues. Our 25 largest projects accounted for 16.5% of our revenues for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023.
Types of Contracts
Our public customer contracts are primarily fixed unit price contracts. Pricing on a fixed unit price contract is typically based on approved quantities. Our private customer contracts are primarily fixed total price contracts, also known as lump sum contracts, which require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price. We also occasionally enter into design-build contracts, which generally are performed under fixed total price contracts. For the majority of our contracts, we receive our final payment upon completion and final acceptance of the services that we were contracted to perform and delivery of the necessary contract closing documents, and our obligations to the owner are complete at that point. For some contracts, we are required to furnish a warranty on our construction. These warranties, when required, are usually one year in length, but can extend up to three years according to the owners’ specifications. Historically, warranty claims have not been material to our business. 
Contract Management
We identify potential contracts through a variety of sources, including: (i) subscriber services that consolidate and alert us to contracts open for bidding; (ii) posted solicitations by federal, state and local governmental entities through agency websites, disclosure of long-term infrastructure plans or advertising and other general solicitations; (iii) our business development efforts; and (iv) communications with other participants in our industry. We consider several factors that can create variability in contract performance and our financial results compared to our bid assumptions and methodologies on a contract. As a result, after determining the potential contracts that are available, we decide which contracts to pursue based on a non-exclusive list of factors, which include relevant skills required by the contract, the contract size and duration, availability of our personnel and equipment, size and makeup of our current contract backlog, our competitive advantages and disadvantages, our prior experience, the contracting agency or customer, the source of contract funding, the geographic location, the likely competition, the construction risks, the gross margin opportunities, the penalties or incentives and the type of contract.
To ensure the completeness and accuracy of our original bid analysis, the bid preparation for potential projects typically involves three phases.
Phase One: We review the plans and specifications of the project so that we can identify (i) the various types of work involved and related estimated materials, (ii) the contract duration and schedule, and (iii) any unique aspects or significant risk factors of the project.
Phase Two: We estimate the cost and availability of labor, materials and equipment, subcontractors and the project team required to complete the contract in accordance with the plans, specifications and construction schedule. Substantially all of our estimates are made on a per-unit basis for each bid item, with the typical contract containing 50 to 200 bid items.
Phase Three: Management conducts a detailed review of the estimate. This review includes an analysis of assumptions regarding (i) cost, approach, means and methods of completing the project, (ii) staffing and productivity and (iii) risk. After concluding this detailed review of the cost estimate, management determines the appropriate profit margin to calculate the total bid amount. This profit margin varies according to management’s perception of the degree of difficulty of the contract, the existing competitive climate and the size and makeup of our contract backlog. Throughout this process, we work closely with our project managers so that all issues concerning a contract, including any risks, can be better understood and addressed as appropriate.
To ensure that subcontracting costs used in submitting bids for construction contracts do not change, we obtain firm quotations from our subcontractors before submitting a bid. Also, to mitigate the risk of material price changes, we obtain “not to exceed” quotations from our suppliers, which, for projects of longer duration, usually contain price escalator provisions. These quotations typically include
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quantity guarantees that are tied to our prime contract. We have no obligation for materials or subcontract services beyond those required to complete the respective contracts that we are awarded for which quotations have been provided.
After a contract has been awarded and during the construction phase, we monitor our progress by comparing actual costs incurred and quantities completed to date with budgeted amounts and the project schedule. We review our estimates of total forecasted revenue, cost and expected profit for each contract monthly.
During the normal course of some projects, we or our customer may initiate modifications or changes to the original contract to reflect, among other things, changes in quantities, specifications or design, method or manner of performance, facilities, materials, site conditions and period for completion of the work. Generally, the scope and price of these modifications are documented in a “change order” to the original contract and reviewed, approved and paid for in accordance with the normal change order provisions of the contract. Occasionally, we are asked to perform extra or change order work as directed by the customer even if the customer has not agreed in advance on the scope or price of the work to be performed. This process may result in disputes over whether the work performed is beyond the scope of the work included in the original contract plans and specifications or, even if the customer agrees that the work performed qualifies as extra work, the price that the customer is willing to pay for the extra work. These disputes may not be settled to our satisfaction. Even when the customer agrees to pay for the extra work, we may be required to fund the cost of such work for an extended period of time until the change order is approved and funded by the customer. In addition, any delay caused by the extra work may adversely impact the timely scheduling of other work on the contract (or on other contracts) and our ability to meet contract milestone dates. Historically, we have been successful at managing the impacts caused by change orders, and change orders have not had a material adverse effect on our business.
Most of our contracts with governmental agencies provide for termination at the convenience of the customer, with requirements to pay us for work performed through the date of termination. The termination of a government contract for the convenience of the customer is an extremely rare occurrence. Many of our contracts contain provisions that require us to pay liquidated damages if specified completion schedule requirements are not met. Historically, we have not been materially adversely affected by liquidated damages provisions.
We act as prime contractor on most of our construction projects. As prime contractor, we are responsible for the performance of the entire contract, including subcontract work. To manage the risk of non-performance by our subcontractors, we typically require the subcontractor to furnish a bond or other type of security to guarantee its performance and/or we retain payments in accordance with contract terms until their performance is complete. Disadvantaged business enterprise regulations require us to use our good faith efforts to subcontract a specified portion of contract work done for governmental agencies to certain types of disadvantaged contractors or suppliers.
Contract Backlog
At September 30, 2023, our contract backlog was $1.6 billion compared to $1.4 billion at September 30, 2022. Contract backlog is a financial measure that generally reflects the dollar value of work that the Company expects to perform in the future. Although contract backlog is not a term recognized under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), it is a common measure used in our industry. We generally include a construction project in our contract backlog at the time it is awarded and to the extent we believe funding is probable. Our backlog generally consists of uncompleted work on contracts in progress and contracts for which we have executed a contract but have not commenced the work. For uncompleted work on contracts in progress, we include (i) executed change orders, (ii) pending change orders for which we expect to receive confirmation in the ordinary course of business and (iii) claims that we have made against our customers for which we have determined we have a legal basis under existing contractual arrangements and as to which we consider collection to be probable. Backlog of uncompleted work on contracts under which work was either in progress or had not yet begun was $1.3 billion and $1.0 billion at September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Our backlog also includes low bid/no contract projects, which consist of (i) public bid projects for which we were the low bidder and no contract has been executed and (ii) private work projects for which we have been notified that we are the low bidder or have been given a notice to proceed, but no contract has been executed. Low bid/no contract backlog was $0.3 billion and $0.4 billion at September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. At September 30, 2023, we expected approximately 73% of our contract backlog to be completed during the next 12 months.
Certain customer contracts contain options that are exercisable at the discretion of our customer to award additional work to us, without requiring us to go through an additional competitive bidding process. In addition, some customer contracts also contain task orders that are signed under master contracts pursuant to which we perform work only when the customer awards specific task orders to us. Awarded contracts that include unexercised contract options and unissued task orders are included in contract backlog to the extent that the exercise of such options or the issuance of such task orders is probable.
Substantially all of the contracts in our contract backlog, as well as unexercised contract options and unissued task orders, may be canceled or modified at the election of the customer. Historically, we have not experienced material amounts of contract cancellations or modifications. Many projects are added to our contract backlog and completed within the same fiscal year and therefore may not be
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reflected in our beginning or year-end contract backlog. Contract backlog does not include external sales of HMA, aggregates, and liquid asphalt cement.
Insurance and Bonding
We maintain general and excess liability, property, workers’ compensation and medical insurance, all in amounts consistent with industry practice.
In the ordinary course of our business, we are required to provide various types of surety bonds that provide an additional measure of security to the customer for our performance under certain public and private sector contracts. Our ability to obtain surety bonds depends on our capitalization, working capital, past performance, management expertise and external factors, including the capacity of the overall surety market. Surety companies consider such factors in light of the amount of our contract backlog that we have bonded and their underwriting standards. The capacity of the surety market is subject to market-based fluctuations driven primarily by the level of surety industry losses and the degree of surety market consolidation.
Competition
We compete against multiple competitors in many of the markets in which we operate. Competition is constrained in our industry because participants are limited by the distance that materials can be efficiently transported, resulting in a fragmented market with thousands of participants nationwide, many of which are local or regional operators. Our competitors typically range from small, family-owned companies focused on a single material, product or market to multinational corporations that offer a wide array of construction materials, products and paving and related services. Factors influencing our competitiveness include price, estimating abilities, knowledge of local markets and conditions, project management, financial strength, reputation for quality, aggregate materials availability and machinery and equipment. We believe that we are well-positioned to compete effectively in the markets in which we operate.
Seasonality
The activity of our business fluctuates due to seasonality because our business is primarily conducted outdoors. Therefore, seasonal changes and other weather-related conditions, in particular extended snowy, rainy or cold weather and major weather events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms and heavy snows, can adversely affect our business and operations through a decline in both the use of our products and the demand for our services. In addition, construction materials production and shipment levels follow activity in the construction industry, which typically occurs in the spring, summer and fall. Warmer and drier weather during our third and fourth fiscal quarters typically result in higher activity and revenues during those quarters. Our first and second fiscal quarters typically have lower levels of activity due to adverse weather conditions. Our third fiscal quarter varies greatly with spring rains and wide temperature variations. A cool, wet spring increases drying time on projects, which can delay revenue in the third fiscal quarter, while a warm, dry spring may facilitate earlier project commencement dates.
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
We purchase raw materials, including, but not limited to, diesel fuel, liquid asphalt, other petroleum-based resources, sand and rock from numerous sources. With few exceptions, we do not enter into long-term agreements to purchase raw materials. We receive quotes from suppliers, most with a “not to exceed” price for the quoted product over the life of a project. In the HMA production process, components of a mix include virgin aggregates, such as sand and rock, liquid asphalt, and reclaimed asphalt pavement (“RAP”). We are able to internally supply RAP, a byproduct of asphalt resurfacing projects, to all of our HMA plants, and virgin aggregates in some of our market areas. The majority of our HMA plants sit in or near suppliers’ aggregates facilities, thereby reducing the hauling cost of material to our plant. The price and availability of raw materials may vary from year to year due to market conditions and production capacities. We do not expect a lack of availability of any raw materials over the next 12 months.
Government and Environmental Regulations
Our operations are subject to stringent and complex federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the environmental, health and safety aspects of our operations or otherwise relating to environmental protection. These laws and regulations impose numerous obligations and limitations on our operations, including:
requirements to obtain a permit or other approval before conducting regulated activities;
restrictions on the types, quantities and concentration of materials that can be released into the environment;
limitation or prohibition of activities on certain lands lying within wilderness, wetlands, and other protected areas;
obligations to restore or reclaim former mining areas;
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requirements to comply with specific health and safety criteria addressing worker protection; and
the imposition of substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from our operations.
Such federal laws include (i) the Federal Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Pollution Prevention Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, governing solid and hazardous waste management, (ii) the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act, protecting air and water resources, and (iii) the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and Toxic Substances Control Act, governing the management of hazardous materials, (iv) the federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, requiring certain disclosures of mining-related health and safety violations, orders, citations, assessments, legal actions, and mining-related fatalities, and (v) the Occupational Safety and Health Act, governing working conditions for workers, in addition to analogous state laws. Numerous governmental authorities, such as the Environmental Protection Agency and corresponding state agencies, have the power to enforce compliance with these laws and regulations and the permits issued under them. Such enforcement actions often involve difficult and costly compliance measures or corrective actions. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil or criminal penalties, compensatory damages, injunctive relief, the imposition of investigatory or remedial obligations, and the issuance of orders limiting or prohibiting some or all of our operations. In addition, we may experience delays in obtaining, or be unable to obtain, required permits, which may delay or interrupt our operations and limit our growth and revenue.
Certain environmental laws impose strict liability (i.e., no showing of “fault” is required) as well as joint and several liability for costs required to remediate and restore sites where hazardous substances, hydrocarbons or solid wastes have been disposed, stored or released. We may be required to remediate contaminated properties currently or formerly owned or operated by us or at which we have disposed of materials, regardless of whether such contamination resulted from the conduct of others or from the consequences of our own actions that complied with applicable laws at the time those actions were taken. In connection with certain acquisitions, we could assume, or be required to provide indemnification against, environmental liabilities that could expose us to material losses. Furthermore, the existence of contamination at properties we own, lease or operate could result in increased operational costs or restrictions on our ability to use those properties as intended, including for mining purposes.
In certain instances, citizen groups also have the ability to bring legal proceedings against us if we are not in compliance with environmental laws, or to challenge our ability to receive environmental permits that we need to operate. In addition, claims for damages to persons or property, including natural resources, may result from the environmental, health and safety impacts of our operations. Our insurance may not cover all environmental risks and costs or may not provide sufficient coverage if an environmental claim is made against us. Moreover, public interest in the protection of the environment has increased dramatically in recent years. The trend of more expansive and stringent environmental legislation and regulations applied to the construction industry could continue, resulting in increased costs of doing business and consequently affecting profitability.
We have incurred, and may in the future incur, significant capital and operating expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations. To the extent that laws are enacted or other governmental action is taken that restricts our operations or imposes more stringent and costly operating, waste handling, disposal and cleanup requirements, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We regularly monitor and review our operations, procedures, and policies for compliance with our operating permits and related laws and regulations. We believe that our operations and facilities, whether owned or leased, are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and that any existing non-compliance is not likely to have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition.
Industrial operations, including equipment maintenance and storage, asphalt manufacturing and processing, underground storage tank usage and other storage and use of hazardous materials and petroleum products, are conducted at our facilities, and in some cases, have been conducted at our facilities for more than 50 years. While we have conducted our operations in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws, we have, from time to time, identified contamination associated with these activities at certain of our facilities. We have incurred costs in connection with the investigation and remediation of hazardous substances and petroleum products identified at several facilities, and investigation and remediation activities are ongoing at others. We may also become subject to similar liabilities in connection with prior and future acquisitions. We do not believe that liabilities associated with known or potential contamination at any of our facilities will have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition. 
Employees and Human Capital Resources
As of September 30, 2023, we employed 1,146 salaried employees and 2,868 hourly employees. The total number of hourly personnel at a given time is subject to the volume of projects in progress and fluctuates on a seasonal basis. During fiscal year 2023, the number of hourly employees ranged from 2,656 to 2,892 employees and averaged 2,782 employees. We are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements with respect to any of our employees. We believe that we have strong relationships with our employees.
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Our business depends on a readily available supply of management, supervisory and field personnel. Attracting, training and retaining key personnel has been and will remain critical to our success. Through the use of our management information systems, on-the-job training, and educational seminars, employees are trained to understand the importance of project execution. We place additional focus on training related to estimating, project management and project cost control. Our crews typically specialize in a specific phase of construction, such as grading or paving, with each crew member assigned to a specific task in order to maximize daily production. A core tenet of our organizational philosophy is to promote from within and offer advancement opportunities at all levels of employment, which helps us retain talented employees. Moreover, we proactively recruit additional talent in both conventional and creative manners to fill open positions when promoting internally is not an option. Like others in our industry, we experience some recurring employee turnover; however, we historically have been able to attract sufficient numbers of personnel to support the growth of our operations. Nonetheless, we continue to face competition for experienced workers in all of our markets. 
We place a great emphasis on the safety of the public, our customers and our employees. To that end, we conduct extensive safety training programs, which have allowed us to maintain a high safety level at our worksites. All newly-hired employees undergo an initial safety orientation, and for certain types of projects and processes, we conduct specific hazard training programs. Our project foremen and superintendents conduct on-site safety meetings, and our full-time safety inspectors make random site safety inspections and perform assessments. In addition, certain operational employees are required to complete a safety course approved by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) or the Mine Safety and Health Administration (“MSHA”), as applicable. Moreover, we promote a culture of safety by encouraging employees to immediately correct and report all unsafe conditions. 
Website Information
The Company maintains a website at www.constructionpartners.net. Certain corporate governance information, filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and other information of potential interest to our stockholders are available free of charge through the “Investors” page of the Company’s website. These include, for example, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These documents are made available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information on, or accessible through, the Company’s website is not part of or incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have included the website address only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend for it to be an active link to the website. We will provide electronic or paper copies of our periodic and current reports to stockholders free of charge upon written request to: Construction Partners, Inc., Attention: Corporate Secretary, 290 Healthwest Drive, Suite 2, Dothan, Alabama 36303. In addition, the SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding us and other issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.
An investment in our Class A common stock involves risks. You should carefully read and consider the following risks, as well as all of the other information contained in this report, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. As a result, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial also may adversely affect us.
Risks Related to our Business
A significant slowdown or decline in economic conditions, particularly in the southeastern United States, could adversely impact our results of operations.
We currently operate in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. A significant slowdown or decline in economic conditions or uncertainty regarding the economic outlook in the United States generally, or in any of these states particularly, could reduce demand for infrastructure projects. Demand for infrastructure projects depends on overall economic conditions, the need for new or replacement infrastructure, the priorities placed on various projects funded by governmental entities and federal, state and local government spending levels. In particular, low tax revenues, credit rating downgrades, budget deficits and financing constraints, including timing and amount of federal funding and competing governmental priorities, could negatively impact the ability of government agencies to fund existing or new public infrastructure projects. In addition, any instability in the financial and credit markets could negatively impact our customers’ ability to pay us on a timely basis, or at all, for work on projects already in progress, could cause our customers to delay or cancel construction projects in our contract backlog and could create difficulties for customers to obtain adequate financing to fund new construction projects, including through the issuance of municipal bonds.
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Our business depends on federal, state and local government spending for public infrastructure construction, and reductions in government funding could adversely affect our results of operations.
During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we generated approximately 63% of our construction contract revenues from publicly funded construction projects and the sale of construction materials to public customers at the federal, state and local levels. As a result, if publicly funded construction decreases due to reduced federal, state or local funding or otherwise, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
Federal highway bills provide spending authorizations that represent the maximum amounts available for federally funded construction projects. Each year, Congress passes an appropriation act establishing the amount that can be used for particular programs. The annual funding level is generally tied to receipts of highway user taxes placed in the federal Highway Trust Fund. Once Congress passes the annual appropriation, the federal government distributes funds to each state based on formulas or other procedures. States generally must spend these funds on the specific programs outlined in the federal legislation. In recent years, the Highway Trust Fund has faced insolvency as outlays have outpaced revenues, and annual shortfalls have been addressed primarily by short-term measures. In November 2021, the IIJA was signed into law, which increases federal spending on surface transportation programs and provides additional funding for highways, bridges and airports over a five-year period. In addition, the Inflation Reduction Act passed in August 2022 provides funding for a variety of infrastructure-related programs. Although these laws provide for funding at historically high levels, the timing, nature and scale of the projects for which these funds under these programs or otherwise will be used remains uncertain given variations in the appropriation processes at the federal and state levels. As a result, we cannot be assured of the existence, timing or amount of future federal highway funding. Federal highway funding is also subject to uncertainties associated with congressional spending as a whole, including the potential impacts of budget deficits, government shutdowns and federal sequestration. Any reduction in federal highway funding, particularly in the amounts allocated to states in which we operate, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Each state funds its infrastructure spending from specially allocated amounts collected from various state taxes, typically fuel taxes and vehicle fees, as well as from voter-approved bond programs. Shortages in state tax revenues can reduce the amount spent or delay expenditures on state infrastructure projects. Many states have experienced state-level funding pressures caused by lower tax revenues and an inability to finance approved projects. To address these pressures, some states have adopted measures to promote stable funding for infrastructure investment, including special-purpose taxes and increased fuel taxes. Any reduction in state infrastructure funding in the states in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from state DOTs. The loss of our ability to competitively bid for certain projects or successfully contract with state DOTs could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our largest customers are state DOTs. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, the Florida DOT and the North Carolina DOT accounted for 10.7% and 10.5% of our revenues, respectively, and projects performed for all state DOTs accounted for 36.2% of our revenues. We believe that we will continue to rely on state DOTs for a substantial portion of our revenues for the foreseeable future. The loss or reduction of our ability to competitively bid for certain projects or successfully contract with state DOTs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operation and liquidity. See Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies, Concentration of Risks, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for information relating to concentrations of revenues by type of customer and for a description of our largest customers.
Government contracts generally are subject to a variety of regulations, requirements and statutes, the violation or alleged violation of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our contracts with governmental agencies are generally subject to specific procurement regulations, contract provisions and a variety of socioeconomic requirements relating to their formation, administration, performance and accounting and often include express or implied certifications of compliance. We may be subject to claims for civil or criminal fraud for actual or alleged violations of these governmental regulations, requirements or statutes. In addition, we may also be subject to qui tam litigation brought by private individuals on behalf of the government under the federal False Claims Act, which could include claims for treble damages. Further, if we fail to comply with any of these regulations, requirements or statutes, or if we have a substantial number of workplace safety violations, our existing government contracts could be terminated, and we could be suspended from government contracting or subcontracting, including federally funded projects at the state level. Even if we have not violated these regulations, requirements or statutes, allegations of violations or defending qui tam litigation could harm our reputation and require us to incur material costs to defend any such allegations or lawsuits. Any one or more of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and liquidity.
The cancellation of a significant number of contracts, our disqualification from bidding on new contracts and the unpredictable timing of new project opportunities could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Government contracts typically can be canceled at any time, with us receiving payment only for the work completed. The cancellation of an unfinished contract could result in lost revenues and cause our equipment to be idled for a significant period of time until other
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comparable work becomes available. In addition, we could be prohibited from bidding on certain government contracts if we fail to maintain qualifications required by those entities. For example, various laws, including those governing wages, benefits, overtime, working conditions, equal employment opportunity, affirmative action and drug testing, provide for mandatory suspension and/or debarment of contractors in certain circumstances involving violations of those laws. In addition, federal and state laws provide for discretionary suspension and/or debarment in certain circumstances, including as a result of being convicted of, or being found civilly liable for, fraud or a criminal offense in connection with obtaining, attempting to obtain or performing a public contract or subcontract. The scope and duration of any suspension or debarment may vary depending upon the facts of a particular case and the grounds for debarment. Finally, the timing of project awards is unpredictable and outside of our control. Project awards, including expansions of existing projects, often involve complex and lengthy negotiations and competitive bidding processes.
If we are unable to accurately estimate the overall risks, revenues or costs on our projects, we may incur contract losses or achieve lower profits than anticipated.
Pricing on fixed unit price contracts is based on approved quantities irrespective of our actual costs, and contracts with a fixed total price require that the work be performed for an agreed-upon price irrespective of our actual costs. We generate profits on fixed unit price and fixed total price contracts only when our revenues exceed our actual costs, which requires us to accurately estimate and control our costs and avoid cost overruns. If our cost estimates are too low or if we do not perform the contract within our cost estimates, then cost overruns may cause us to incur a loss or cause the contract not to be as profitable as we expected. The costs incurred and profit realized, if any, on our contracts can vary, sometimes substantially, from our original projections due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to:
the failure to include materials or work in a bid, or the failure to estimate properly the quantities or costs needed to complete a fixed total price contract;
delays caused by weather conditions or otherwise failing to meet scheduled acceptance dates;
contract or project modifications or conditions creating unanticipated costs that are not covered by change orders;
changes in the availability, proximity and costs of materials, including liquid asphalt cement, aggregates and other construction materials, as well as fuel and lubricants for our equipment;
to the extent not covered by contractual cost escalators, variability in, and our inability to predict, the costs of diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and cement;
the availability and skill level of workers;
onsite conditions that differ from those assumed in the original bid;
the failure by our suppliers, subcontractors, designers, engineers or customers to perform their obligations;
fraud, theft or other improper activities by our suppliers, subcontractors, designers, engineers, customers or personnel;
mechanical problems with our machinery or equipment;
citations issued by a government authority, including OSHA or MSHA;
difficulties in obtaining required government permits or approvals;
changes in applicable laws and regulations;
uninsured claims or demands from third parties for alleged damages arising from the design, construction or use and operation of a project of which our work is part; and
public infrastructure customers seeking to impose contractual risk-shifting provisions that result in increased risks to us.
These and other factors may cause us to incur losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Inflation and supply chain disruptions have resulted, and may continue to result, in increased costs, some of which we may not be able to recoup.
Inflation and supply chain disruptions have the potential to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, particularly if we are unable to pass through increased costs to our customers. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we continued to experience an upward trend in several inflation-sensitive inputs that we use to provide our products and services,
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including upward pressure on wages and increases in the cost of raw materials used to produce HMA and other items critical to our business, including fuel, concrete and steel. In addition, we continued to experience disruptions from various participants in our supply chains, including subcontractors, materials suppliers and equipment manufacturers, who provide the raw materials, equipment, vehicles, construction supplies and other services we require in order to manufacture HMA and perform our construction projects. While we have been able to mitigate some of the effects of inflation, supply chain disruptions and upward wage pressures on our business by increasing prices for our products and including the anticipated cost increases in the construction projects for which we bid, we may not be able to do so in the future. In addition, we are limited in our ability to pass through increased costs for projects already in our backlog, and if we are unable to do so, we may not recoup our losses or diminished profit margins. If inflation and supply chain disruptions continue to rise, we may be required to implement further price adjustments to maintain our profit margin, and any price increases may have a negative effect on demand.

Because our industry is capital-intensive and we have significant fixed and semi-fixed costs, our profitability is sensitive to changes in volume.
The property, plants and equipment needed to produce our products and provide our services can be expensive. We must spend a substantial amount of capital to purchase and maintain such assets. Although we believe our current cash balance, along with our projected internal cash flows and available financing sources, will provide sufficient cash to support our currently anticipated operating and capital needs, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash to purchase and maintain the property, plants and equipment necessary to operate our business, or if the timing of payments on our receivables is delayed, we may be required to reduce or delay planned capital expenditures or to incur additional indebtedness. In addition, due to the level of fixed and semi-fixed costs associated with our business, particularly at our HMA production facilities, aggregates facilities and our mobile equipment fleets, volume decreases could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
The success of our business depends, in part, on our ability to execute on our acquisition strategy, to successfully integrate acquired businesses and to retain key employees of acquired businesses.
Since our inception, we have acquired and integrated 41 complementary businesses, which have contributed significantly to our growth. We continue to evaluate strategic acquisition opportunities that have the potential to support and strengthen our business, including acquisitions in the southeastern United States, as part of our ongoing growth strategy. We cannot predict the timing or size of any future acquisitions. To successfully acquire a target, we may need to raise additional equity and/or incur additional indebtedness, which could increase our leverage level. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify and complete acquisition transactions on favorable terms, or at all. The investigation of acquisition candidates and the negotiation, drafting and execution of relevant agreements, disclosure documents and other instruments require substantial management time and attention and costs for accountants, attorneys and others. If we fail to complete any acquisition for any reason, including events beyond our control, the costs incurred up to that point for the proposed acquisition likely would not be recoverable.
Acquisitions typically require integration of the acquired company’s estimation, project management, finance, information technology, risk management, purchasing and fleet management functions. We may be unable to successfully integrate an acquired business into our existing business, and an acquired business may not be as profitable as we had expected or at all. Acquisitions involve risks that the acquired business will not perform as expected and that our expectations concerning the value, strengths and weaknesses of the acquired business will prove incorrect. Our inability to successfully integrate new businesses in a timely and orderly manner could increase costs, reduce profits or generate losses and prevent us from realizing expected rates of return on an acquired business. Factors affecting the successful integration of an acquired business include, but are not limited to, the following:
our responsibility for certain liabilities of an acquired business, whether or not known to us, which could include, among other things, tax liabilities, product and other tort liabilities, breach of contract claims, environmental liabilities, permitting and regulatory compliance issues and liabilities for employment practices;
our ability to retain local managers and key employees who are important to the operations of an acquired business;
the attention required by our senior management and the management of an acquired business for integration efforts, which could decrease the time that they have to service and attract customers;
our ability to effectively utilize new equipment that we acquire;
the implementation of our financial and management information systems, business practices and policies;
our pursuit of multiple acquisition opportunities simultaneously; and
unforeseen expenses, complications and delays, including difficulties in employing sufficient staff and maintaining operational and management oversight.
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In addition, potential acquisition targets may be in states in which we do not currently operate, which could result in unforeseen operating difficulties and difficulties in coordinating geographically dispersed operations, personnel and facilities and subject us to additional and unfamiliar legal requirements.
We cannot guarantee that we will achieve synergies and cost savings in connection with future acquisitions. Many of the businesses that we previously acquired, and businesses that we may acquire in the future, could have unaudited financial statements that are prepared by management and are not independently reviewed or audited, and such financial statements could be materially different if they were independently reviewed or audited. We cannot guarantee that we will continue to acquire businesses at valuations consistent with our prior acquisitions or that we will complete future acquisitions at all. We also cannot know whether there will be attractive acquisition opportunities at reasonable prices, that financing will be available or that we can successfully integrate acquired businesses into our existing operations. In addition, our results of operations from these acquisitions could, in the future, result in impairment charges for any of our intangible assets, including goodwill or other long-lived assets, particularly if economic conditions worsen unexpectedly.
We may lose business to competitors that underbid us and may be unable to compete favorably in our highly competitive industry.
Most of our project awards are determined through a competitive bidding process in which price is the determining factor. Because of the high cost of transporting HMA, our ability to win a project award is often influenced by the distance between a work site and our HMA plants. We compete against multiple competitors in many of the markets in which we operate. Some of our competitors are larger than we are and are vertically integrated. As a result, our competitors may be able to bid at lower prices than we can due to the location of their plants or as a result of their size or vertical integration advantages. Government funding for public infrastructure projects is limited, contributing to competition for the limited number of public projects available. An increase in competition may result in a decrease in new project awards to us at acceptable profit margins. In addition, in the event of a downturn in private residential and commercial construction, the competition for available public infrastructure projects could intensify, which could materially and adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
We may be unable to obtain or maintain sufficient bonding capacity, which could preclude us from bidding on certain projects.
A significant number of our contracts require performance and payment bonds. Sureties typically issue or continue bonds on a project-by-project basis, and they can decline to do so at any time or require the posting of additional collateral as a condition thereto. Our ability to obtain performance and payment bonds primarily depends on our capitalization, working capital, past performance, management expertise, reputation and certain external factors, including the overall capacity of the surety market. Events that adversely affect the insurance and bonding markets generally may result in bonding becoming more difficult or costly to obtain in the future. If we are unable to obtain or renew a sufficient level of bonding, or if bonding costs were to increase, we may be precluded from bidding on certain projects or successfully contracting with certain customers, which could limit the aggregate dollar amount of contracts that we are able to pursue. In addition, even if we are able to successfully renew or obtain performance or payment bonds, we may be required to post letters of credit in connection with such bonds, which could negatively affect our liquidity and results of operations.
Our business is seasonal and subject to adverse weather and climate conditions, which can adversely impact our business.
Our construction operations occur outdoors in an area of the country in which hurricanes, tornadoes and tropical storms are common and snow frequently occurs in certain markets in the winter. As a result, seasonal changes and adverse weather conditions, such as extended snowy, rainy or cold weather, can adversely affect our business operations through a decline in the use and production of HMA, a decline in the demand for our construction services, alterations and delays in our construction schedules, and reduced efficiencies in our contracting operations, resulting in under-utilization of crews and equipment and lower contract profitability. Climate change may lead to increased extreme weather and changes in precipitation and temperature, including natural disasters. Should the impact of climate change be significant or occur for lengthy periods of time, our financial condition or results of operations would be adversely affected.
We depend on our information technology systems and processes, which are subject to cybersecurity and data leakage risks.
We depend on information technology systems and infrastructure that could be damaged or interrupted by a variety of factors. Any significant breach, breakdown, destruction or interruption of these systems has the potential to negatively affect our operations. We could experience a business interruption, theft of information or reputational damage as a result of a cyber attack, such as the infiltration of a data center, or data leakage of confidential information either internally or through our third-party providers. Although we have invested in the protection of our data and information technology to reduce these risks and periodically test the security of our information systems network, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns or breaches in our systems that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Similarly, our suppliers rely extensively on computer systems to process transactions and manage their businesses and, thus, are also at risk of, and may be impacted by, cybersecurity attacks. An interruption in the business operations of our suppliers and other third parties with which we do business resulting from a cybersecurity attack could indirectly impact our business operations.
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Design-build contracts subject us to the risk of design errors and omissions.
Design-build contracts are used as a method of project delivery that provides the owner with a single point of responsibility for both design and construction. We generally subcontract design responsibility to architectural and engineering firms. However, in the event of a design error or omission that causes damages, there is a risk that the subcontractor and/or its errors and omissions insurance would not be able to absorb the full amount of the liability incurred. In this case, we may be responsible for the remaining liability, which could damage our reputation and adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
From time to time, we enter into joint venture contracts to perform certain projects, and these arrangements expose us to certain risks and uncertainties that are outside of our control.

From time to time, we perform construction projects as part of a joint venture, under which our relationship to the other joint venture partners is governed by a written contract. Participation in these arrangements exposes us to risks and uncertainties, including the risk that our partners may fail to perform under the contracts, which could subject us to contractual liability. In addition, if our partners are not able or willing to provide their share of capital investment to fund the operations of the venture or the joint venture arrangement is terminated, there could be unanticipated costs to complete the project, or we could be liable for financial penalties or liquidated damages. In the event that we are not the controlling partner in the joint venture, we may have limited control over the decisions made with respect to the project. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our continued success requires us to hire, train and retain qualified personnel and subcontractors in a competitive industry.
The success of our business depends on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified, reliable personnel, including, but not limited to, our executive officers and key management personnel. In addition, we rely on engineers, project management personnel, other employees and qualified subcontractors who possess the necessary and required experience and expertise to perform their respective services at a reasonable and competitive rate. Competition for these and other experienced personnel is intense, and it may be difficult to attract and retain qualified individuals with the requisite expertise and within the time frame demanded by our customers. In certain geographic areas, for example, we may not be able to satisfy the demand for our services because of our inability to successfully hire, train and retain qualified personnel. Also, it could be difficult to replace personnel who hold credentials that may be required to perform certain government projects and/or who have significant government contract experience.
As some of our executives and other key personnel approach retirement age, we must provide for smooth transitions, which may require that we devote time and resources to identify and integrate new personnel into vacant leadership roles and other key positions. If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of skilled personnel or effectively implement appropriate succession plans, our ability to pursue projects and our strategic plan may be adversely affected, the costs of executing both our existing and future projects may increase, and our financial performance may decline.
In addition, the cost of providing our services, including the extent to which we utilize our workforce, affects our profitability. For example, the uncertainty of contract award timing can present difficulties in matching our workforce size with our contracts. If an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we could incur costs resulting from excess staff or redundancy of facilities that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results of operations can be adversely affected by labor shortages, turnover and labor cost increases.

Labor is a primary component of operating our business. A number of factors may adversely affect the labor force available to us or increase labor costs from time to time, including high employment levels, federal unemployment subsidies and other government regulations. Although we have not experienced material disruptions due to labor shortages to date, we have observed an overall tightening and increasingly competitive labor market. A sustained labor shortage or increased turnover rates within our employee base could lead to increased costs, such as increased overtime to meet demand and increased wage rates to attract and retain employees, and could negatively affect our ability to complete our construction projects according to the required schedule or otherwise efficiently operate our business. If we are unable to hire and retain employees capable of performing at a high level, or if mitigation measures we may take to respond to a decrease in labor availability, such as overtime and third-party outsourcing, have unintended negative effects, our business could be adversely affected. In addition, we distribute our products and receive raw materials primarily by truck. Reduced availability of trucking capacity due to shortages of drivers and increased fuel costs has caused an increase in the cost of transportation for us and our suppliers. An overall labor shortage, lack of skilled labor, increased turnover or labor inflation could have a material adverse impact on our operations, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows.

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We depend on third parties for equipment and supplies essential to operate our business.
We rely on third parties to sell or lease real property, plants and equipment to us and to provide us with supplies, including liquid asphalt cement, aggregates and other construction materials necessary for our operations. The inability to purchase or lease the properties, plants or equipment that are necessary for our operations could severely impact our business. If we lose our supply contracts and receive insufficient supplies from third parties to meet our customers’ needs, or if our suppliers experience price increases or disruptions to their business, such as labor disputes, supply shortages, financial or regulatory difficulties or distribution problems, our ability to bid for or complete contracts could be impaired, in which case our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows would be materially and adversely affected.
Supply chain issues, including shortages of raw materials needed for HMA production, equipment, vehicles and construction supplies, could increase our costs or cause delays in our ability to complete our projects, which could have an adverse impact on our business and our relationships with customers.

We rely on our supply chain for raw materials to manufacture HMA and for equipment, vehicles and construction supplies in order to complete our projects. A reduction or interruption in supply, including disruptions due to shortages in global freight capacity, significant increases in the price of critical components and raw materials, a failure to appropriately forecast or adjust our requirements based on our business needs, a significant natural disaster or volatility in demand for our products and services could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition and could materially damage customer relationships. Our vendors and subcontractors also may be unable to meet our demand, significantly increase lead times for deliveries or impose significant price increases that we are unable to offset through alternate sources of supply, price increases to our customers or increased productivity in our operations. In some cases, we procure certain inputs and services from single or limited suppliers or subcontractors. In the event of supply disruptions from these suppliers or subcontractors, we may not be able to diversify our resources for such materials or services in a timely manner or may experience quality issues with alternate sources. Our growth and ability to meet customer demand depend in large part on our ability to obtain timely deliveries of raw materials, plant components, equipment and vehicles from our suppliers, and significant disruptions in their supply could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition and could materially damage customer relationships.

We consume natural gas, electricity, diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and other petroleum-based resources that are subject to potential reliability issues, supply constraints and significant price fluctuations.
In our production and distribution processes, we consume significant amounts of natural gas, electricity, diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and other petroleum-based resources. The availability and pricing of these resources are subject to market forces that are beyond our control, such as unavailability due to refinery turnarounds, higher prices charged for petroleum-based products and other factors. Furthermore, we are vulnerable to any reliability issues experienced by our suppliers, which also are beyond our control. Our suppliers contract separately for the purchase of such resources, and our sources of supply could be interrupted if our suppliers are unable to obtain these materials due to higher demand or other factors that interrupt their availability. Additionally, increases in the costs of fuel and other petroleum-based products utilized in our operations, particularly increases following a bid based on lower costs for such products, could result in a lower profit, or a loss, on a contract. Variability in the supply and prices of these resources could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
Our contract backlog is subject to reductions in scope and cancellations and therefore could be an unreliable indicator of our future earnings.
At September 30, 2023, our contract backlog was $1.6 billion, compared to $1.4 billion at September 30, 2022. Our contract backlog generally consists of construction projects for which we either have an executed contract or commitment with a client or have submitted the currently lowest bid. Contract backlog does not include external sales of HMA, aggregates and liquid asphalt cement. Moreover, our contract backlog reflects our expected revenues from the contract, commitment or bid, which is often subject to revision over time. We cannot guarantee that the revenues projected in our contract backlog will be realized or, if realized, will be profitable. Projects reflected in our contract backlog may be affected by project cancellations, scope adjustments, time extensions or other changes. Such changes may adversely affect the revenues and profit we ultimately realize on these projects.
Failure of our subcontractors to perform as expected could have a negative impact on our results.
We rely on third-party subcontractors to perform some of the work on many of our contracts, but we are ultimately responsible for the successful completion of their work. Although we often require bonding or other forms of guarantees from our subcontractors, we are not always able to obtain such bonds or guarantees. In situations where we are unable to obtain a bond or guarantee, we may be responsible for the failures on the part of our subcontractors to perform as anticipated. In addition, if the total costs of a project exceed our original estimates, we could experience reduced profits or a loss for that project.
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The construction services industry is highly schedule-driven, and our failure to meet the schedule requirements of our contracts could adversely affect our reputation and/or expose us to financial liability.
In some instances, including in the case of many of our fixed unit price contracts, we guarantee that we will complete a project by a certain date. Any failure to meet the contractual schedule or satisfy the completion requirements set forth in our contracts could subject us to responsibility for costs resulting from the delay, generally in the form of contractually agreed-upon liquidated damages, liability for our customer’s actual costs arising out of our delay, reduced profits or a loss on that project and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
An inability to secure sufficient aggregates reserves could have a negative impact on our future results of operations.
Strict governmental regulations and the limited number of properties containing useful aggregates reserves have made it increasingly challenging and costly to obtain sufficient aggregates to support our business, both with respect to internal use and third-party sales. If we are unable to obtain adequate reserves to support our business, then our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity may be adversely affected.
A failure to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage could adversely affect our results of operations.
We maintain insurance coverage as part of our overall risk management strategy, and a majority of our contracts require us to maintain specific types and amounts of coverage. Although we have been able to obtain reasonably priced insurance coverage to meet our requirements in the past, there is no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future. For example, catastrophic events can result in decreased coverage limits, more limited coverage and increased premium costs or deductibles. If we are unable to obtain adequate insurance coverage, we would be subject to increased out-of-pocket expenses in the event of a claim and we may not be able to procure certain contracts, either of which could materially adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or liquidity.
We may be unable to identify and contract with qualified “disadvantaged business enterprises” to perform as subcontractors, which could cause us to breach certain contracts with governmental customers.
Some of our contracts with governmental agencies contain minimum “disadvantaged business enterprise” (“DBE”) participation clauses, which require us to maintain a requisite level of DBE participation. If we fail to obtain or maintain the required level of DBE participation, we could be held responsible for breach of contract. Such a breach could impair our ability to bid on future projects and could require us to pay monetary damages. To the extent that we are responsible for monetary damages, the total costs of the project could exceed our original estimates, we could experience reduced profits or a loss for that project and there could be a material adverse impact to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or liquidity.
Failure to maintain safe work sites could result in significant losses, which could materially affect our business and reputation.
Because our employees and others are often in close proximity with mechanized equipment, moving vehicles, chemical substances and dangerous manufacturing processes, our construction and maintenance sites are potentially dangerous workplaces. Therefore, safety is a primary focus of our business and is critical to our reputation and performance. We are often responsible for safety on the project sites where we work. In addition, many of our customers require that we meet certain safety criteria to be eligible to bid on contracts, and some of our contract fees or profits are subject to satisfying safety criteria. Unsafe work conditions also can increase employee turnover, which increases project costs and therefore our overall operating costs. If we fail to implement effective safety procedures, our employees could be injured, the completion of a project could be delayed, or we could be exposed to investigations and possible litigation. Our failure to maintain adequate safety standards through our safety programs could also result in reduced profitability or the loss of projects or clients.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We could incur material costs and losses as a result of claims that our products do not meet regulatory requirements or contractual specifications.
We provide our customers with products designed to comply with building codes or other regulatory requirements, as well as any applicable contractual specifications, including, but not limited to, with respect to durability, compressive strength and weight-bearing capacity. If our products do not satisfy these requirements and specifications, material claims may arise against us, our reputation could be damaged and, if any such claims are for an uninsured, non-indemnified or product-related matter, then resolution of such claims against us could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
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We are, and may continue to be, involved in routine litigation and government inquiries in the ordinary course of business.
Due to the nature of our business, we are involved in routine litigation or subject to other disputes or claims related to our business activities, including, among other things, workers’ compensation claims, employment-related disputes and issues related to liability, breach of contract or tortious conduct in connection with our performance of services and provision of materials. We are also subject to government inquiries in the ordinary course of business seeking information concerning our compliance with government construction contracting requirements and various laws and regulations, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty. The outcomes of these inquiries and legal proceedings are not expected to have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations on an individual basis, although adverse outcomes in a significant number of such ordinary course inquiries and legal proceedings could, in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Environmental laws and regulations and any changes to, or liabilities arising under, such laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
Our operations are subject to stringent and complex federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection and public health and safety. These laws and regulations impose numerous obligations applicable to our operations, including requirements to obtain a permit or other approval before conducting regulated activities; restrictions on the types, quantities and concentration of materials that can be released into the environment; limitations on activities on certain lands lying within wilderness, wetlands, and other protected areas; and assessments of substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from our operations. For example, a number of governmental bodies have finalized, proposed or are contemplating legislative and regulatory actions to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, such as monitoring, reporting and emissions control requirements for certain large sources of greenhouse gases and greenhouse gas cap-and-trade programs. Because we emit greenhouse gases through the manufacture of HMA products and through the combustion of fossil fuels as part of our mining and road construction services, any such laws and regulations applicable to jurisdictions in which we operate could require us to incur costs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with our operations.
We have in the past been, and may in the future be, required to remediate contaminated properties currently or formerly owned or operated by us or third-party facilities that receive waste generated by our operations, regardless of whether such contamination resulted from our own actions or those of others and whether such actions complied with applicable laws at the time they were taken. In connection with certain acquisitions, we could assume, or be required to provide indemnification against, environmental liabilities that could expose us to material losses. Furthermore, the existence of contamination at properties that we own, lease or operate could result in increased operational costs or restrictions on our ability to use those properties as intended, including for mining purposes. For example, our lease agreements associated with our aggregates facilities could, if not appropriately managed, subject us to specific reclamation obligations, costs, or liabilities for any contamination or regulatory violations arising from our mining operations.

Numerous government authorities, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) and analogous state agencies, have the power to enforce compliance with these laws and the permits issued under them. Such enforcement actions often involve difficult and costly compliance measures or corrective actions. Certain environmental laws impose strict liability (i.e., no showing of “fault” is required) or joint and several liability for costs required to remediate and restore sites where hazardous substances, hydrocarbons or solid wastes have been stored or released. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil or criminal penalties, compensatory damages, injunctive relief, the imposition of investigatory or remedial obligations, and the issuance of orders limiting or prohibiting some or all of our operations. In addition, we may experience delays in obtaining, or be unable to obtain, required permits, which may delay or interrupt our operations and limit our growth and revenue.
In certain instances, citizen groups also have the ability to bring legal proceedings against us if we are not in compliance with environmental laws, or to challenge our ability to receive environmental permits that we need to operate. In addition, claims for damages to persons or property, including natural resources, may result from the environmental, health and safety impacts of our operations. Our insurance may not cover all environmental risks and costs or may not provide sufficient coverage if an environmental claim is made against us. Moreover, public interest in the protection of the environment has increased dramatically in recent years. The trend of more expansive and stringent environmental legislation and regulations applied to our industry could continue, resulting in increased costs of doing business and, consequently, affecting profitability.
Climate change and related laws and regulations could adversely affect us.
The potential impact of climate change on our operations and our customers remains uncertain. The primary risk that climate change poses to our business is the potential for increases in the volume, frequency and intensity of rainfall and tropical storms, which would impair our ability to perform our construction projects. Climate change could also lead to disruptions in our supply chain, thereby impairing our production capabilities, or the distribution of our products due to major storm events or prolonged adverse conditions, changing temperature levels or flooding from sea level changes, especially in our coastal markets. These changes could be severe and could negatively impact demand for our products and services. In addition, governmental initiatives to address climate change could, if
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adopted, restrict our operations, require us to make capital or other expenditures to comply with these initiatives, increase our costs, impact our ability to compete or negatively impact efforts to obtain permits, licenses and other approvals for existing and new facilities. Our inability to timely respond to the risks posed by climate change and the costs of compliance with climate change laws and regulations could have a material adverse impact on us.

Increasing focus by stakeholders on environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) policies and practices could result in additional costs and could adversely impact our reputation, investor perception, employee retention and willingness of third parties to do business with us.

In recent years, there has been increasing focus from stakeholders, including government agencies, investors, consumers and employees, on our ESG policies and practices. Additionally, public interest and legislative pressure related to public companies’ ESG practices continues to grow. If our policies and practices do not meet regulatory requirements or stakeholders’ evolving expectations for responsible corporate citizenship in areas including environmental stewardship, employee health and safety practices, director and employee diversity, human capital management and corporate governance, our reputation and employee retention may be negatively impacted, and customers and suppliers may be unwilling to do business with us. In addition, we are subject to various federal and state laws in connection with our operations, and inconsistency in legislation and regulations among jurisdictions and expected additional regulations may require greater resources to monitor, report and comply with various ESG practices. Any assessment of the potential impact of future ESG-related regulations or industry standards is uncertain given the wide scope of potential regulatory change where we operate. As a result, the effects of increased focus by stakeholders on ESG matters could have short- and long-term impacts on our business and operations.

Our operations are subject to special hazards that may cause personal injury or property damage, subjecting us to liabilities and possible losses that may not be covered by insurance.

Operating hazards inherent in our business, some of which may be outside of our control, can cause personal injury and loss of life, damage to or destruction of property, and environmental damage. We maintain insurance coverage in amounts and against risks that we believe are consistent with industry practice, but this insurance may be inadequate or unavailable to cover all losses or liabilities we may incur in our operations. Our insurance policies are subject to varying levels of deductibles. Losses up to our deductible amounts are accrued based on our estimates of the ultimate liability for claims incurred and an estimate of claims incurred but not reported. However, liabilities subject to insurance are difficult to estimate due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of unreported incidents and the effectiveness of our safety programs. If we experience insurance claims or costs above our estimates, we may be required to use working capital to satisfy these claims rather than for maintaining or expanding our operations.
Our failure to comply with immigration laws could result in significant liabilities, harm our reputation with our customers and disrupt our operations.
Although we take steps to verify the employment eligibility status of all of our employees, some of our employees may, without our knowledge, be unauthorized workers. Unauthorized workers are subject to deportation and may subject us to fines or penalties and, if any of our workers are found to be unauthorized, we could experience adverse publicity that could make it more difficult to hire and retain qualified employees. Termination of a significant number of unauthorized employees may disrupt our operations, cause temporary increases in our labor costs as we train new employees and result in additional adverse publicity. We could also become subject to fines, penalties and other costs related to claims that we did not fully comply with all recordkeeping obligations of federal and state immigration laws. If we fail to comply with these laws, our operations may be disrupted, and we may be subject to fines or, in extreme cases, criminal sanctions. In addition, many of our customer contracts specifically require compliance with immigration laws, and, in some cases, our customers’ audit compliance with these laws. Further, several of our customers require that we ensure that our subcontractors comply with these laws with respect to the workers that perform services for them. A failure to comply with these laws or to ensure compliance by our subcontractors could damage our reputation and may cause our customers to cancel contracts with us or to not award future business to us. These factors could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.
Federal, state and local employment-related laws and regulations could increase our cost of doing business and subject us to fines and lawsuits.
Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state and local employment-related laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the U.S. Fair Labor Standards Act, which governs such matters as minimum wages, the Family Medical Leave Act, overtime pay, compensable time, recordkeeping and other working conditions, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the National Labor Relations Act, regulations of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, regulations of the Office of Civil Rights, regulations of the Department of Labor, regulations of state attorneys general, federal and state wage and hour laws, and a variety of similar laws enacted by the federal and state governments that govern these and other employment-related matters. As our employees are located in a number of states, compliance with these evolving federal, state and local laws and regulations could substantially increase our cost of doing business. In recent years, companies have been subject to
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lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, alleging violations of federal and state law regarding workplace and employment matters, overtime wage policies, discrimination and similar matters, some of which have resulted in the payment of meaningful damages by the defendants. Similar lawsuits may be threatened or instituted against us from time to time, and we may incur damages and expenses resulting from lawsuits of this type, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. [We are currently subject to employee-related legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. While we believe that we have adequate reserves for those losses that we believe are probable and can be reasonably estimated, the ultimate results of legal proceedings and claims cannot be predicted with certainty.
Financial Risks
Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations.
Our debt consists primarily of our borrowings under our Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with PNC Bank, National Association (successor in interest to BBVA USA) and certain other lenders party from time to time thereto (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”), which, as of September 30, 2023, provided for a $250.0 million term loan (the “Term Loan”), a $325.0 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) and a $50.0 million delayed draw term loan (the “Delayed Draw Term Loan”, and together with the Term Loan, the “Term Loans”). A significant portion of our cash flow is required to pay interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness, and we may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations, or have future borrowings available, to enable us to repay our indebtedness or to fund other liquidity needs. Among other consequences, this level of indebtedness could:

require us to use a significant percentage of our cash flow from operations for debt service and the satisfaction of repayment obligations, and not for other purposes;
limit our ability to borrow money or issue equity to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and debt service requirements;
cause our interest expense to increase if there is a general increase in interest rates, because a portion of our indebtedness bears interest at floating rates;
limit our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and future business opportunities;
cause us to be more highly leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
make us more vulnerable to a downturn in our business or the economy; and
limit our ability to exploit business opportunities.
Volatility in the credit markets, including due to the recent bank failures as well as the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank’s actions and pace of interest rate increases to combat inflation in the United States, may further increase our interest payments. We have
secured overnight financing rate (“SOFR”)-based floating rate borrowings under the Credit Agreement, which expose us to variability in interest payments due to changes in the reference interest rates. SOFR is a relatively new reference rate and has a limited history, and changes in SOFR have, on occasion, been more volatile than changes in other benchmark or market rates. As a result, the amount of interest we may pay on our variable rate indebtedness is difficult to predict.

Although the Credit Agreement restricts our ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and we could incur substantial additional indebtedness in compliance with these restrictions. This could reduce our ability to satisfy our current obligations and further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
The Credit Agreement restricts our ability to engage in some business and financial transactions.
The Credit Agreement contains a number of covenants that limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness or guarantees, create liens on assets, change our or our subsidiaries’ fiscal year, enter into sale and leaseback transactions, enter into certain restrictive agreements, engage in mergers or consolidations, participate in partnerships and joint ventures, sell assets, incur additional liens, pay dividends or distributions and make other restricted payments, make investments, loans or advances, repay or amend the terms of subordinated indebtedness, make acquisitions, enter into certain operating leases, enter into certain hedge transactions, amend material contracts and engage in certain transactions with affiliates. The Credit Agreement also requires us to maintain a fixed charge coverage ratio and a consolidated leverage ratio and contains certain customary representations and warranties, affirmative covenants and events of default (including, among others, an event of default upon a change of control). If an event of default occurs, the lenders under the Credit Agreement will be entitled to accelerate amounts due thereunder and take other actions permitted to be taken by a secured
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creditor. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we cannot be certain that we will have sufficient funds available to pay the accelerated indebtedness or that we will have the ability to refinance the accelerated indebtedness on terms favorable to us or at all.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and we may not be able to do so on favorable terms or at all, which could impair our ability to operate our business or achieve our growth objectives.
Our ongoing ability to generate cash is important for funding our continuing operations, making acquisitions and servicing our indebtedness. To the extent that existing cash balances and cash flow from operations, together with borrowing capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility, are insufficient to make investments or acquisitions or provide needed working capital, we may require additional financing from other sources. Our ability to obtain such additional financing in the future will depend in part on prevailing market conditions, as well as conditions in our business and our operating results. Furthermore, if global economic, political or other market conditions adversely affect the financial institutions that provide credit to us, it is possible that our ability to draw upon our Revolving Credit Facility may be impacted. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not be able to make certain investments, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities or respond to competitive challenges, each of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We may be required to record an impairment charge if we determine that goodwill recorded in connection with prior acquisitions has become impaired, and this determination requires us to make significant judgments and assumptions about the future that are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties.
At September 30, 2023 and 2022, we had $159.3 million and $129.5 million, respectively, of goodwill recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We assess goodwill for impairment annually or more often if required. Our assessments involve a number of estimates and assumptions that are inherently subjective and require significant judgment regarding highly uncertain matters that are subject to change. The use of different assumptions or estimates could materially affect the determination as to whether or not an impairment has occurred. In addition, if future events are less favorable than what we assumed or estimated in our impairment analysis, we may be required to record an impairment charge, which could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Our earnings are affected by the application of accounting standards and our critical accounting policies, which involve subjective judgments and estimates by our management. Our actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions used to prepare our consolidated financial statements.
The accounting standards that we use in preparing our financial statements are often complex and require us to make significant estimates and assumptions in interpreting and applying those standards. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported values of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. We make critical estimates and assumptions involving accounting matters, including with respect to revenue recognition, contracts receivable including retainage, valuation of long-lived assets and goodwill, income taxes, accrued insurance costs and share-based payments and other equity transactions. These estimates and assumptions involve matters that are inherently uncertain and require us to make subjective and complex judgments. Although we believe we have the experience and processes to enable us to formulate appropriate assumptions and produce reasonably dependable estimates, these assumptions and estimates may change significantly in the future and could result in the reversal of previously recognized revenues and profit. If we used different estimates and assumptions or used different methods to determine these estimates, our financial results could differ, which could have a material negative impact on our financial condition and reported results of operations. For more information about our critical accounting policies and use of estimates, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.”
Unfavorable developments affecting the banking and financial services industry could adversely affect our business, liquidity and financial condition and overall results of operations.
Actual events, concerns or speculation about disruption or instability in the banking and financial services industry, such as liquidity constraints, the failure of individual institutions, or the inability of individual institutions or the banking and financial service industry generally to meet their contractual obligations, could significantly impair our access to capital, delay access to deposits or other financial assets, or cause actual loss of funds subject to cash management arrangements. Similarly, these events, concerns or speculation could result in less favorable commercial financing terms, including higher interest rates or costs and tighter financial and operating covenants, or systemic limitations on access to credit and liquidity sources, thereby making it more difficult for us to acquire financing on acceptable terms or at all. Additionally, our customers, critical vendors and business partners also could be adversely affected by these risks as described above, which in turn could result in their committing a breach or default under their contractual agreements with us, their insolvency or bankruptcy, or other adverse effects. Any decline in available funding or access to our cash and liquidity resources, or non-compliance of banking and financial services counterparties with their contractual commitments to us could, among other risks, have material adverse impacts on our ability to meet our operating expenses and other financial needs, could result in breaches of our financial and/or contractual obligations and could have material adverse impacts on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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General Risks
Force majeure events, such as natural disasters, pandemics and terrorist attacks, and unexpected equipment failures could negatively impact our business, which may affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Force majeure events, such as terrorist attacks, pandemics or natural disasters, have impacted, and could continue to negatively impact, the U.S. economy and the markets in which we operate. As an example, from time to time, we face unexpected severe weather conditions, evacuation of personnel and curtailment of services, increased labor and material costs or shortages, inability to deliver materials, equipment and personnel to work sites in accordance with contract schedules and loss of productivity. We seek to include language in our contracts with private customers that grants us certain relief in connection with force majeure events, and we attempt to mitigate the potential impact arising from force majeure events in both public and private customer contracts. However, the extra costs incurred as a result of these events may not be reimbursed by our customers, and we remain obligated to perform our services after most extraordinary events, subject to any relief that may be available pursuant to a force majeure clause. Additionally, our manufacturing processes depend on critical pieces of equipment, such as our HMA plants. This equipment, on occasion, may be out of service as a result of unanticipated failures or damage. Any significant interruption in production capability may require us to make significant capital expenditures to remedy problems or damage and cause us to lose revenues due to lost production time. These force majeure events and unexpected equipment failures may affect our operations or those of our customers or suppliers and could impact our revenues, production capability and ability to complete contracts in a timely manner.
We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, substantial costs as a result of being a public company, which may significantly affect our financial condition.
As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses associated with our financial reporting and corporate governance requirements, including requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 and rules implemented by the SEC. For example, as a publicly traded company, we are required to adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures, including the preparation of reports on internal control over financial reporting. These rules and regulations have made, and may continue to make, it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in our consolidated financial statements and our Company, which could have a material adverse effect on our stock price.
We have designed and implemented a number of internal controls and other remedial measures that we believe will provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP. A failure to maintain effective internal controls could result in a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our financial information or cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline and impact our liquidity, perceived creditworthiness and ability to complete acquisitions.
We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs related to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”). If we are unable to timely comply with such requirements, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

We are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404, which requires that we document and test our internal control over financial reporting and issue management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. Section 404 also requires that our independent registered public accounting firm opine on those internal controls. The out-of-pocket costs, the diversion of management’s attention from running the day-to-day operations and operational changes caused by the need to comply with the requirements of Section 404 have been significant, and we expect to continue to incur substantial costs in connection with our compliance efforts. If we fail to comply with the requirements of Section 404, or if we or our auditors identify and report any material weaknesses, the accuracy and timeliness of the filing of our annual and quarterly reports may be materially adversely affected and could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock. In addition, a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting could result in an increased chance of fraud and the loss of customers, reduce our ability to obtain financing, subject us to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities and require additional expenditures to comply with these requirements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with holders of our Class B common stock, which limits the ability of holders of our Class A common stock to influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share, and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. As of November 27, 2023, our outstanding Class B common stock represented approximately 67.3% of the total voting power of our outstanding common stock. The shares of Class B common stock are beneficially owned primarily by (i) SunTx Capital Partners, a private equity firm based in Dallas, Texas (“SunTx”), and funds that it manages, (ii) SunTx principals and their respective affiliates and family members, and (iii) certain members of management and our board of directors. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B common stock and our Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore control the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders. This concentrated control limits or precludes the ability of holders of Class A common stock to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future. Future transfers of shares of our Class B common stock generally result in those shares converting into shares of our Class A common stock, with limited exceptions. The conversion of shares of our Class B common stock into our Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of each remaining share of Class B common stock.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of Class A common stock by us or our existing stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.
As of November 27, 2023, we had outstanding a total of 43,711,058 shares of our Class A common stock and 8,998,511 shares of our Class B common stock that are convertible at any time into an equal number of shares of our Class A common stock. The sale of shares of our Class A common stock, or the perception of future sales by us or our existing stockholders, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. In the future, we may also issue our securities in connection with offerings or acquisitions, and the number of shares issued or issuable thereafter could constitute a material portion of the then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock. Any such issuance would result in dilution to holders of our Class A common stock.
SunTx, together with its principals and their respective affiliates and family members (collectively, the “SunTx Group”), controls us, and their interests may conflict with ours or yours in the future.
As of November 27, 2023, the SunTx Group beneficially owned approximately 2.0% of our outstanding Class A common stock and approximately 76.3% of our outstanding Class B common stock, representing approximately 52.0% of the combined voting power of our common stock. Each share of our Class B common stock has ten votes per share, and each share of our Class A common stock has one vote per share. As a result, the SunTx Group has the ability to elect all of the members of our board of directors and thereby control our policies and operations, including the appointment of management, future issuances of our Class A common stock or other securities, the payment of dividends, if any, on our Class A common stock, our ability to incur or issue debt, amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and our entry into extraordinary transactions. This concentration of voting control could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your shares of our Class A common stock as part of a sale of our Company and ultimately might affect the market price of our Class A common stock. In addition, we have engaged, and expect to continue to engage, in related party transactions involving the SunTx Group and certain companies controlled by its members. As a result, the interests of the SunTx Group may not in all cases be aligned with your interests.

In addition, the SunTx Group may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to you. For example, the SunTx Group could cause us to make acquisitions that increase our indebtedness or cause us to sell revenue-generating assets. SunTx is in the business of making investments in companies and may from time to time acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that none of SunTx, any of its affiliates or any director who is not employed by us or his or her affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. The SunTx Group also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us.
So long as the SunTx Group continues to beneficially own a sufficient number of shares of our Class B common stock, it will continue to be able to effectively control our decisions, even if the number of shares of outstanding Class B common stock is limited in proportion to the total number of shares of common stock outstanding. Shares of our Class B common stock may be transferred to an unrelated third party if holders of a majority of the shares of our Class B common stock owned by SunTx and its affiliates consent to such transfer in writing in advance.
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We may issue preferred stock with terms that could adversely affect the voting power or value of our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights, including preferences over our Class A common stock with respect to dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our Class A common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or upon the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of our Class A common stock.
Provisions in our governing documents and Delaware corporate law make it more difficult to effect a change in control of our Company, which could adversely affect the price of our Class A common stock.
Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and Delaware corporate law could delay or prevent a change in control of our Company, even if that change would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make acquiring control of our Company difficult, including:
a dual class common stock structure, which currently provides the SunTx Group and the other holders of our Class B common stock with the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, so long as they continue to beneficially own a sufficient number of shares of our Class B common stock, even if they own significantly less than 50% of the total number of shares of our outstanding common stock;
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms;
provisions regulating the ability of our stockholders to nominate directors for election or to bring matters for action at annual meetings of our stockholders;
limitations on the ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting;
the ability of our board of directors to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws, and the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained for stockholders to amend our amended and restated bylaws;
the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to remove directors or amend our amended and restated certificate of incorporation; and
the authority of our board of directors to issue and set the terms of preferred stock without the approval of our stockholders.
These provisions also could discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. As a result, these provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders, which may limit the price that investors are willing to pay for shares of our Class A common stock.
Our governing documents designate certain courts as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, state courts within the State of Delaware (or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for any: (i) derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law; or (iv) action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, and that if any action specified above is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (each is referred to herein as a foreign action), the claiming party will be deemed to have consented to (a) the personal jurisdiction of state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the exclusive forum provision described above and (b) having service of process made upon such claiming party by service upon such claiming party’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such claiming party. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States are, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to
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find these provisions inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more covered proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Because we are a “controlled company” under the listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC and the rules of the SEC, our stockholders do not have, and may never have, certain corporate governance protections that are available to stockholders of companies that are not controlled companies.
The SunTx Group controls a majority of the voting power of our outstanding common stock. As a result, we are a “controlled company” under the listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC and SEC rules. As a controlled company, we are not required to comply with certain provisions requiring that (i) a majority of our directors be independent, (ii) the compensation of our executives be determined by independent directors or (iii) nominees for election to our board of directors be selected by independent directors. Because we intend to continue to take advantage of some or all of these exemptions, our stockholders may not have the protections that these rules are intended to provide. Our status as a controlled company could cause our Class A common stock to be less attractive to certain investors or otherwise reduce the trading price of our Class A common stock.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future, and therefore only appreciation, if any, of the price of our Class A common stock will provide a return to our stockholders.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. In addition, the Credit Agreement restricts our ability to pay cash dividends. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our Class A common stock, which may not occur, will provide a return to our stockholders.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties.
Our principal executive office is located in Dothan, Alabama, in a building that we own. As of September 30, 2023, we operated (i) 67 HMA plants in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee, (ii) 13 aggregates facilities in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida, and (iii) two liquid asphalt terminals in Alabama and Florida. Our HMA plants operate at varying levels of utilization depending on market conditions. We maintain offices at our HMA plants and aggregates facilities as we determine to be appropriate under the circumstances. We consider our plants and other physical properties, whether owned or leased, to be suitable, adequate, and of sufficient productive capacity to meet the requirements of our business. However, we routinely evaluate the purchase or lease of additional properties or the consolidation of our properties as our business needs change.
The table below summarizes the locations and the nature of our ownership or leasehold interest in each of our HMA plants, aggregates facilities and liquid asphalt terminals as of September 30, 2023.
HMA PlantsAggregates FacilitiesLiquid Asphalt Terminals
LocationOwnedLeasedOwnedLeasedOwnedLeased
Alabama107631
Florida10111
Georgia6112
North Carolina1210
South Carolina43
Tennessee3
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Due to the nature of our business, we are involved in routine litigation or subject to other disputes or claims related to our business activities, including, among other things, (i) workers’ compensation claims, (ii) employment-related disputes and (iii) liability issues or breach of contract or tortious conduct claims in connection with the performance of services and provision of materials. We and our affiliates are also subject to government inquiries in the ordinary course of business seeking information concerning our compliance with government construction contracting requirements and various laws and regulations, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty. In the opinion of our management, after consultation with legal counsel, none of the pending inquiries, litigation, disputes or claims against us, if decided adversely to us, would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
The information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K (17 C.F.R. Part 229.104) is included in Exhibit 95.1 to this report.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
From our inception until April 2018, we maintained a single class of common stock. On April 23, 2018, we amended and restated our certificate of incorporation to effectuate a dual-class equity structure, which resulted in the conversion of each share of our then-outstanding common stock into 25.2 shares of Class B common stock and the initial authorization of Class A common stock for issuance.  
Market for Our Common Stock
Our Class A common stock is listed and trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ROAD.” Prior to its listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 4, 2018, there was no established public trading market for our Class A common stock. There is no established public trading market for our Class B common stock. 
Holders
As of November 27, 2023, there were 43,711,058 shares of our Class A common stock outstanding, held by 99 stockholders of record. The actual number of beneficial holders of our Class A common stock is significantly greater than the number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other nominees. The last sale price for a share of our Class A common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 27, 2023 was $43.30.
As of November 27, 2023, there were 8,998,511 shares of our Class B common stock outstanding, held by 36 stockholders of record.
Dividends
Holders of our Class A and Class B common stock receive dividends if and when declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. We do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of the Credit Agreement restrict our ability to pay cash dividends to the holders of our common stock unless, after giving effect to such dividend, we would remain in compliance with the financial covenants and, at the time any such dividend is made, no default or event of default exists or would result from the payment of such dividend.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any of our equity securities during the period covered by this report that were not registered under the Securities Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the quarter ended September 30, 2023, we did not purchase any of our equity securities that are registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.


















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Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return provided to the Company’s Class A common stock holders relative to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite index and the Dow Jones U.S. Heavy Construction index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our Class A common stock and in each index (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from September 30, 2018 through September 30, 2023.

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Value as of September 30,
201820192020202120222023
Construction Partners, Inc.$100.00$128.76$150.41$275.79$216.78$302.15
NASDAQ Composite Index$100.00$99.42$138.79$179.57$131.43$164.29
Dow Jones US Heavy Construction Index$100.00$97.52$94.70$162.83$175.64$226.32

The information under the heading “Stock Performance Graph” shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.


Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is intended to assist in understanding and assessing the trends and significant changes in our results of operations and financial condition. Historical results may not be indicative of future performance. This discussion includes forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Such statements involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” This discussion should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. In this discussion, we use certain non-GAAP financial measures. An explanation of these non-GAAP financial measures and a reconciliation to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures are included in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Investors should not consider non-GAAP financial measures in isolation or as substitutes for financial information presented in compliance with GAAP.
Overview
We are a civil infrastructure company that specializes in the building and maintenance of transportation networks. Our operations leverage a highly-skilled workforce, strategically located HMA plants, substantial construction assets and select material deposits. We provide construction products and services to both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports and commercial and residential sites in the southeastern United States.
Our public projects are funded by federal, state and local governments and include roads, highways, bridges, airports and other forms of infrastructure. Public transportation infrastructure projects historically have been a relatively stable portion of state and federal budgets and represent a significant share of the United States construction market. Federal funds are allocated on a state-by-state basis, and each state is required to match a portion of the federal funds that it receives. Federal highway spending uses funds predominantly from the Highway Trust Fund, which derives its revenues from fuel taxes and other user fees.
In addition to public infrastructure projects, we provide a wide range of large site work construction and HMA paving services to private construction customers, including commercial and residential developers and local businesses.
Fiscal 2023 Developments
Contract Backlog
At September 30, 2023, our contract backlog was $1.6 billion. Contract backlog is a financial measure that reflects the dollar value of work that the Company expects to perform in the future. We include a construction project in our contract backlog at the time it is awarded and to the extent we believe funding is probable. Our backlog consists of uncompleted work on contracts in progress and contracts for which we have executed a contract but have not commenced the work. For uncompleted work on contracts in progress, we include (i) executed change orders, (ii) pending change orders for which we expect to receive confirmation in the ordinary course of business and (iii) claims that we have made against our customers for which we have determined we have a legal basis under existing contractual arrangements and as to which we consider collection to be probable. Backlog of uncompleted work on contracts under which work was either in progress or had not yet begun was $1.3 billion at September 30, 2023. Our contract backlog also includes low bid/no contract projects, which consist of (i) public bid projects for which we were the low bidder and no contract has been executed and (ii) private work projects for which we have been notified that we are the low bidder or have been given a notice to proceed, but no contract has been executed. Low bid/no contract backlog was $0.3 billion at September 30, 2023.
Business Acquisitions
During the 2023 fiscal year, we completed five acquisitions across four states, adding to or expanding our operations in Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. As a result of these acquisitions, we added eight asphalt plants and a diverse fleet of equipment and vehicles, as well as skilled construction professionals. For further discussion regarding these transactions, see Note 4 - Business Acquisitions to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
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Inflationary and Supply Chain Trends
During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we continued to experience an upward trend in certain inflation-sensitive inputs for our products and services, including upward pressure on wages and increases in the cost of raw materials used to produce HMA, such as liquid asphalt and aggregate materials. We also experienced some disruptions from subcontractors, materials suppliers, equipment manufacturers and others in our supply chain, although to a lesser extent than in recent years. We have been able to mitigate some of the effects of inflation, supply chain disruptions and labor constraints on our business by increasing prices for our products and including the anticipated cost increases in the construction projects we bid. However, we are limited in our ability to pass through increased costs for projects already in our backlog and, under those circumstances, may be unable to recoup losses or diminished profit margins by passing these costs through to our customers.
Seasonality
The activity of our business fluctuates due to seasonality because our business is primarily conducted outdoors. Therefore, seasonal changes and other weather-related conditions, in particular extended snowy, rainy or cold weather and major weather events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms and heavy snows, can adversely affect our business and operations through a decline in both the use of our products and the demand for our services. In addition, construction materials production and shipment levels follow activity in the construction industry, which typically occurs in the spring, summer and fall. Warmer and drier weather during our third and fourth fiscal quarters typically result in higher activity and revenues during the second half of our fiscal year. Our first and second fiscal quarters typically have lower levels of activity due to adverse weather conditions. Our third fiscal quarter varies greatly with spring rains and wide temperature variations. A cool, wet spring increases drying time on projects, which can delay revenues in the third fiscal quarter, while a warm, dry spring may facilitate earlier project commencement dates.
How We Assess Performance of Our Business
Revenues
We derive our revenues predominantly by providing construction products and services for both public and private infrastructure projects, with an emphasis on highways, roads, bridges, airports and commercial and residential sites in the southeastern United States. Our projects represent a mix of federal, state, municipal and private customers. We also derive revenues from the sale of HMA, aggregates and liquid asphalt cement to customers. We recognize revenues derived from projects as we satisfy our performance obligations over time (formerly known as the percentage-of-completion method), measured by the relationship of total cost incurred compared to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost input method). Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to estimated costs and income, and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined. Revenues derived from the sale of HMA, aggregates and liquid asphalt cement are recognized when the risks associated with ownership have passed to the customer.
Gross Profit
Gross profit represents revenues less cost of revenues. Cost of revenues consists of all direct and indirect costs associated with construction contracts, including raw materials, labor, equipment costs, depreciation, lease expenses, subcontract costs and other expenses at our HMA plants, aggregates mining facilities and liquid asphalt cement terminal. Our cost of revenues is directly affected by fluctuations in commodity prices, primarily liquid asphalt and diesel fuel. From time to time, when appropriate, we limit our exposure to changes in commodity prices by entering into forward purchase commitments. In addition, our public infrastructure contracts often provide for price adjustments based on fluctuations in certain commodity-related product costs. These price adjustment provisions are in place for most of our public infrastructure contracts, and we seek to include similar provisions in our private contracts.
Depreciation, Depletion, Accretion and Amortization
Property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at cost or, if acquired as a business combination, at fair value. Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Amortization expense is the periodic expense related to leasehold improvements, intangible assets and liabilities. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the life of the underlying asset or the remaining lease term. Our intangible assets and liabilities were recognized as a result of certain acquisitions and are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets and liabilities. Mineral reserves are depleted in accordance with the units-of-production method as aggregates are extracted, using the initial allocation of cost based on proven and probable reserves.
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General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses include costs related to our operational offices that are not allocated to direct contract costs and expenses related to our corporate offices. These expenses consist primarily of salaries and personnel costs for our administration, finance and accounting, legal, information systems, human resources and certain managerial employees. General and administrative expenses also include acquisition expenses, audit, consulting and professional fees, stock-based compensation expense, travel, insurance, office space rental costs, property taxes and other corporate and overhead expenses.
Gain on Sale of Property, Plant and Equipment
In the normal course of business, we sell construction equipment for various reasons, including when the cost of maintaining the asset exceeds the cost of replacing it. The gain or loss on the sale of property, plant and equipment reflects the difference between the carrying value at the date of disposal and the net consideration received from the sale of equipment during the period.
Gain on Facility Exchange
As part of our continued growth strategy, we may exchange or sell facilities in order to generate capital for use in connection with other strategic initiatives. The gain or loss on the exchange or sale of a facility reflects the difference between the net carrying value of the facility at the date of disposal and the consideration received from the exchange or sale during the period.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net primarily represents interest incurred on our long-term debt, such as the Term Loan and the Revolving Credit Facility, as well as the changes in fair values of interest swap agreements and amortization of deferred debt issuance costs. These amounts are partially offset by interest income earned on short-term investments of cash balances in excess of our current operating needs.
Other Key Performance Indicators — Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin
Adjusted EBITDA represents net income before, as applicable from time to time, (i) interest expense, net, (ii) provision (benefit) for income taxes, (iii) depreciation, depletion, accretion and amortization, (iv) equity-based compensation expense, (v) loss on the extinguishment of debt, and (vi) certain management fees and expenses. Periods commencing subsequent to September 30, 2023 will not include an adjustment for management fees and expenses, which have historically related to our management services agreement with an affiliate of SunTx. Effective October 1, 2023, the term of the management services agreement was extended to October 1, 2028. As a result of the term extension, we no longer view the management fees and expenses paid under the management services agreement as a non-recurring expense. Adjusted EBITDA Margin represents Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenues for each period. These metrics are supplemental measures of our operating performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, GAAP. These measures have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to net income or any other performance measure derived in accordance with GAAP as an indicator of our operating performance. We present Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin because management uses these measures as key performance indicators, and we believe that securities analysts, investors and others use these measures to evaluate companies in our industry. Our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin may not be comparable to similarly named measures reported by other companies. Potential differences may include differences in capital structures, tax positions and the age and book depreciation of intangible and tangible assets.

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The following table presents a reconciliation of net income, the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, to Adjusted EBITDA and the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA Margin for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
For the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30,
20232022
Net income$49,001 $21,376 
Interest expense, net17,346 7,701 
Provision for income taxes16,403 6,915 
Depreciation, depletion, accretion and amortization 79,100 65,730 
Equity-based compensation expense10,759 8,000 
Management fees and expenses (1)
1,486 1,451 
Adjusted EBITDA$174,095 $111,173 
Revenues$1,563,548 $1,301,674 
Adjusted EBITDA Margin11.1 %8.5 %
(1)Reflects fees and reimbursement of certain out-of-pocket expenses under a management services agreement with SunTx (see Note 17 - Related Parties to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report).


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Results of Operations — Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2023 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2022
The following table sets forth selected financial data for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 (“fiscal 2023”) and September 30, 2022 (“fiscal 2022”) (in thousands, except percentages). Refer to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, filed with the SEC on November 22, 2022, for a discussion of results for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 (“fiscal 2021”) and a comparison of our financial results for fiscal 2022 to those for fiscal 2021.
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30,Change from Fiscal
2022 to Fiscal 2023
20232022
Dollars% of
Revenues
Dollars% of
Revenues
$ Change%
Change
Revenues$1,563,548 100.0 %$1,301,674 100.0 %$261,874 20.1 %
Cost of revenues1,367,163 87.4 %1,162,372 89.3 %204,791 17.6 %
Gross profit196,385 12.6 %139,302 10.7 %57,083 41.0 %
General and administrative expenses(126,947)(8.1)%(107,562)(8.3)%(19,385)18.0 %
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment7,048 0.5 %3,673 0.3 %3,375 91.9 %
Gain on facility exchange5,389 0.3 %— — %5,389 — %
Operating income81,875 5.3 %35,413 2.7 %46,462 131.2 %
Interest expense, net(17,346)(1.1)%(7,701)(0.6)%(9,645)125.2 %
Other income875 — %600 0.1 %275 45.8 %
Income before provision for income taxes and earnings from investment in joint venture65,404 4.2 %28,312 2.2 %37,092 131.0 %
Provision for income taxes16,403 1.1 %6,915 0.5 %9,488 137.2 %
Earnings (loss) from investment in
   joint venture
— — %(21)(0.1)%21 (100.0)%
Net income$49,001 3.1 %$21,376 1.6 %$27,625 129.2 %
Adjusted EBITDA$174,095 11.1 %$111,173 8.5 %$62,922 56.6 %
Revenues. Revenues for fiscal 2023 increased $261.9 million, or 20.1%, to $1.6 billion from $1.3 billion for fiscal 2022. The increase included $148.5 million of revenues attributable to acquisitions completed during or subsequent to fiscal 2022 and an increase of approximately $113.4 million of revenues in our remaining markets from contract work and sales of HMA and aggregates to third parties. The 8.7% increase in revenue in our existing markets was due to strong demand in both public and private work.

Gross Profit. Gross profit for fiscal 2023 increased $57.1 million, or 41.0%, to $196.4 million from $139.3 million for fiscal 2022. The increase in gross profit was primarily the result of the 20.1% increase in revenues for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 and a higher gross profit margin. The higher gross profit margin was due to (i) efficient utilization of our plants and equipment fleet and (ii) completion of new backlog with more favorable margins.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses for fiscal 2023 increased $19.4 million, or 18.0%, to $126.9 million from $107.6 million for fiscal 2022. The increase in general and administrative expenses for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was the result of (i) a $7.7 million increase attributable to general and administrative expenses associated with the operations of businesses acquired subsequent to September 30, 2022, (ii) a $6.4 million increase in management personnel payroll and benefits, (iii) a $2.8 million increase in equity-based compensation expense, and (iv) a $2.5 million increase in other general and administrative expenses.

Gain on Sale of Property, Plant and Equipment. Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment for fiscal 2023 increased $3.4 million, or 91.9%, to $7.0 million from $3.7 million for fiscal 2022. The increase was primarily the result of a $1.3 million gain on the sale of an excess office building and higher disposals of equipment and components during fiscal 2023.
Gain on Facility Exchange. Gain on facility exchange for fiscal 2023 was $5.4 million compared to $0.0 million for fiscal 2022. The gain was the result of the disposition of a quarry in North Carolina. In connection with this transaction, we acquired three HMA manufacturing plants and certain related assets located in the Nashville, Tennessee metro area.
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Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net for fiscal 2023 increased $9.6 million, or 125.2%, to $17.3 million compared to $7.7 million for fiscal 2022. The increase in interest expense, net was primarily due to an increase in the average principal debt balance outstanding and higher interest rates during fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022.

Provision for Income Taxes. Our effective tax rate increased to 25.1% for fiscal 2023, from 24.4% for fiscal 2022. Our higher effective tax rate for fiscal 2023 was due to differences in state tax rates at our operating subsidiaries.
Net Income. Net income increased $27.6 million, or 129.2%, to $49.0 million for fiscal 2023 compared to $21.4 million for fiscal 2022. The increase in net income was primarily a result of higher gross profit, gain on sale of property, plant and equipment and gain on facility exchange, partially offset by an increase in general and administrative expenses and interest expense, net, all as described above.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin. Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin were $174.1 million and 11.1%, respectively, for fiscal 2023, compared to $111.2 million and 8.5%, respectively, for fiscal 2022. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin resulted from an increase in gross profit, gain on sale of property, plant and equipment and gain on facility exchange, partially offset by higher general and administrative expenses, all as described above. For a description of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin, as well as a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income, see “How We Assess Performance of Our Business.”

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash Flows Analysis
The following table sets forth our cash flows for the periods indicated (in thousands):
For the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30,
20232022
Net cash provided by operating activities, net of acquisitions$157,157 $16,498 
Net cash used in investing activities(143,372)(197,326)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(264)159,136 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$13,521 $(21,692)
Operating Activities
During fiscal 2023, cash provided by operating activities, net of acquisitions, was $157.2 million, primarily as a result of:
net income of $49.0 million, reflecting $79.1 million of depreciation, depletion, accretion and amortization, deferred income taxes of $11.2 million, equity-based compensation expense of $10.8 million, gain on sale of property, plant and equipment of $7.0 million, gain on facility exchange of $5.4 million;
an increase in contracts receivable including retainage of $26.0 million as a result of higher overall revenues due to acquisitions and growth in existing markets;
an increase in inventories of $7.3 million due to increased inventories from acquisitions, growth in existing markets, higher inventory costs and normal fluctuations in our inventory cycle;
a decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $3.7 million, primarily due to the timing of payments under our insurance policies and other expenses;
an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $19.6 million due to an increase in construction activity; and
a net increase in the difference between billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts and costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts of $26.7 million due to the timing of performing and closing projects.
During fiscal 2022, cash provided by operating activities, net of acquisitions, was $16.5 million, primarily as a result of:
net income of $21.4 million, reflecting $65.7 million of depreciation, depletion, accretion and amortization, equity-based compensation expense of $8.0 million and unrealized gains on derivative instruments of $0.4 million;
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an increase in contracts receivable including retainage, net of $97.1 million as a result of higher overall revenues due to acquisitions and growth in existing markets;
an increase in inventories of $17.5 million due to increased inventories from acquisitions, growth in existing markets, higher inventory costs and normal fluctuations in our inventory cycle;
an increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $4.9 million primarily due to the timing of deposits for federal and state income taxes and timing of payments under our insurance policies and other expenses;
an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $29.8 million due to an increase in construction activity; and
a net increase in the difference between billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts and costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts of $9.5 million due to the timing of performing and closing projects.
Investing Activities
During fiscal 2023, cash used in investing activities was $143.4 million, of which $91.8 million related to acquisitions completed in the period, $97.8 million was invested in property, plant and equipment and $11.4 million was invested in restricted investments. These amounts were partially offset by $17.7 million of proceeds from the sale of equipment, $37.0 million of proceeds from the facility exchange and $2.9 million of proceeds from the sale of restricted investments.
During fiscal 2022, cash used in investing activities was $197.3 million, of which $128.6 million related to acquisitions completed in the period and $68.9 million was invested in property, plant and equipment. These amounts were partially offset by $7.5 million of proceeds from the sale of equipment.
Financing Activities
During fiscal 2023, cash used in financing activities was $0.3 million. We received $103.0 million in proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs and discounts, which was offset by $103.1 million of principal payments on long-term debt and purchase of treasury stock of $0.2 million.
During fiscal 2022, cash provided by financing activities was $159.1 million. We received $167.3 million in proceeds on long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs and discounts, which was partially offset by $8.1 million of principal payments on long-term debt.
Credit Agreement
We and each of our subsidiaries are parties to the Credit Agreement, which provides for the Term Loans and the Revolving Credit Facility. At September 30, 2023 and 2022, we had $283.8 million and $271.9 million, respectively, of principal outstanding under the Term Loans, $93.1 million and $105.1 million, respectively, of principal outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility, and availability of $221.1 million and $208.6 million, respectively, under the Revolving Credit Facility, including reduction for outstanding letters of credit. The obligations of our subsidiaries under the Term Loans and the Revolving Credit Facility are secured by a first priority security interest in substantially all of our assets.
The Credit Agreement requires us to satisfy certain financial covenants, including a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.20-to-1.00 and a maximum consolidated leverage ratio of 3.50-to-1.00, subject to certain adjustments. At September 30, 2023 and 2022, our fixed charge coverage ratio was 2.56-to-1.00 and 2.56-to-1.00, respectively, and our consolidated leverage ratio was 1.72-to-1.00 and 2.79-to-1.00, respectively.
From time to time, we have entered into interest rate swap agreements to hedge against the risk of changes in interest rates. At September 30, 2023 and 2022, the aggregate notional value of these interest rate swap agreements was $300.0 million, and the fair value was $26.9 million and $24.7 million, respectively, which is included within other assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
For more information about the Credit Agreement, see Note 11 - Debt to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
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Capital Requirements and Sources of Liquidity
During fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022, our capital expenditures were approximately $97.8 million and $68.9 million, respectively. Our capital expenditures are typically made during the same fiscal year in which they are approved. At September 30, 2023, our commitments for capital expenditures were not material to our financial condition or results of operations on a consolidated basis. For fiscal 2024, we expect total capital expenditures to be $90.0 million to $95.0 million. Our capital expenditure budget is an estimate and is subject to change.
Historically, we have required significant amounts of cash in order to make capital expenditures, purchase materials and fund our organic expansion into new markets. Our working capital needs are driven by the seasonality and growth of our business, with our cash requirements increasing in periods of growth. Additional cash requirements resulting from our growth include the costs of additional personnel, production and distribution facilities, enhancements to our information systems, integration costs related to any acquisitions and our compliance with laws and rules applicable to public companies.
We have historically relied on cash available through credit facilities, in addition to cash from operations, to finance our working capital requirements and to support our growth. We regularly monitor potential capital sources, including equity and debt markets, in an effort to meet our planned capital expenditures and liquidity requirements. Our future success will depend on our ability to access outside sources of capital.
We believe that our operating cash flow and available borrowings under the Credit Agreement will be sufficient to fund our operations and planned capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. However, future cash flows are subject to a number of variables, including the potential impacts of inflation and supply chain constraints, and significant additional capital expenditures will be required to conduct our operations. There can be no assurance that operations and other capital resources will provide sufficient cash to maintain planned or future levels of capital expenditures. In the event that we make one or more acquisitions and the amount of capital required is greater than the amount of cash on hand we have available for acquisitions at that time, we could be required to reduce the expected level of capital expenditures and/or seek additional capital. If we seek additional capital, we may do so through borrowings under the Credit Agreement, joint ventures, asset sales, offerings of debt or equity securities or other means. However, our ability to engage in any such transactions may be constrained by economic conditions and other factors outside of our control. Additional capital may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. If we are unable to obtain the funds we need, we may not be able to complete acquisitions that may be favorable to us or finance the capital expenditures necessary to conduct our operations.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of September 30, 2023, the Company had aggregate letters of credit outstanding in the amount of $9.8 million, future purchase commitments for diesel fuel and natural gas of $3.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively, and $2.5 million of minimum royalty payments related to mineral leases at aggregates facilities. Other than the letters of credit, future purchase commitments and minimum royalty payments, we do not currently have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have, or are reasonably likely to have, a material current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in our financial condition, revenue or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources. See Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our significant obligations outstanding as of September 30, 2023 (in thousands).
Payments Due by Fiscal Year
Total202420252026202720282029 and Thereafter
Debt obligations$376,850 $15,000 $18,750 $22,500 $320,600 $— $— 
Operating leases17,269 2,793 2,389 2,240 2,018 1,712 6,117 
Purchase commitments3,675 3,139 536 — — — — 
Royalty payments2,538 295 256 192 180 145 1,470 
Asset retirement obligations2,417 — — — — — 2,417 
Total$402,749 $21,227 $21,931 $24,932 $322,798 $1,857 $10,004 

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. The results of our analysis form the basis for making assumptions about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, and the impact of such differences may be material to our consolidated financial statements.
Critical accounting policies are those policies that, in management’s view, are the most important in the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also include disclosure of significant accounting policies. The methods, estimates and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on the results that we report in our consolidated financial statements. These critical accounting policies require us to make difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates regarding matters that are inherently uncertain. Estimates made in accordance with U.S. GAAP that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and have had or are reasonably likely to have a material impact on our financial condition are discussed further below.
Revenue Recognition
The majority of our public construction contracts are fixed unit price contracts. Under fixed unit price contracts, we are committed to providing materials or services required by a contract at fixed unit prices (for example, dollars per ton of asphalt placed). Our private customer contracts are primarily fixed total price contracts, also known as lump sum contracts, which require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price. Revenues from fixed unit price and fixed total price construction contracts are recognized as performance obligations are satisfied over time (formerly known as the percentage-of-completion method), measured by the relationship of total cost incurred compared to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost input method). Under this method, revenues are recognized as costs are incurred in an amount equal to cost plus the related expected profit based on the ratio of costs incurred to estimated final costs. This cost-to-cost method is used because management considers it to be the best available measure of progress on these contracts. Contract costs consist of direct costs on contracts, including labor, materials, amounts payable to subcontractors and those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as equipment costs, insurance and employee benefits. Contract cost is recorded as incurred, and revisions in contract revenues and cost estimates are reflected in the accounting period when known. Provisions for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts are made in the period in which such losses are determined. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those changes arising from contract change orders, penalty provisions and final contract settlements may result in revisions to costs and income and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Change orders are modifications of an original contract that effectively change the existing provisions of the contract without adding new provisions or terms. Change orders may include changes in specifications or designs, manner of performance, facilities, equipment, materials, sites and period of completion of the work. Either we or our customers may initiate change orders. We consider unapproved change orders to be contract variations for which we have a change of scope for which we believe we are contractually entitled to a higher price, but where a price change associated with the scope change has not yet been agreed upon with the customer. Costs associated with unapproved change orders are included in the estimated cost to complete the contracts and are treated as project costs as incurred. We recognize revenues equal to costs incurred on unapproved change orders when realization of price approval is probable. Unapproved change orders involve the use of estimates, and it is reasonably possible that revisions to the estimated costs and recoverable amounts may be required in future reporting periods to reflect changes in estimates or final agreements with customers. Change orders that are unapproved as to both price and scope are evaluated as claims. We consider claims to be amounts in excess of agreed contract prices that we seek to collect from our customers or others for customer-caused delays, errors in specifications and designs, contract terminations, change orders that are either in dispute or are unapproved as to both scope and price, or other causes of unanticipated additional contract costs. Claims are included in the calculation of revenues when realization is probable and amounts can be reliably determined. To support these requirements, the existence of the following items must be satisfied: (i) the contract or other evidence provides a legal basis for the claim or a legal opinion has been obtained, stating that, under the circumstances, there is a reasonable basis to support the claim; (ii) additional costs are caused by circumstances that were unforeseen at the contract date and are not the result of deficiencies in our performance; (iii) costs associated with the claim are identifiable or otherwise determinable and are reasonable in view of the work performed; and (iv) the evidence supporting the claim is objective and verifiable, not based on management’s subjective evaluation of the situation or on unsupported representations. Revenues in excess of contract costs incurred on claims are recognized when an agreement is reached with the customer as to the value of the claim, which, in some instances, may not occur until after completion of work under the contract. Costs associated with claims are included in the estimated costs to complete the contracts and are treated as project costs when incurred.
For the majority of our contracts, upon completion and final acceptance of the services that we were contracted to perform, we receive our final payment upon completion of the necessary contract closing documents, and our obligations to the owner are complete at that
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point. The accuracy of our revenues and profit recognition in a given period depends on the accuracy of our estimates of the revenues and costs to finish uncompleted contracts. Our estimates for all of our significant contracts use a highly detailed “bottom up” approach. However, our projects can be highly complex and, in almost every case, the profit margin estimates for a contract will either increase or decrease to some extent from the amount that was originally estimated at the time of bid. Because we have a large number of projects of varying sizes and levels of complexity in process at any given time, these changes in estimates can sometimes offset each other without materially impacting our overall profitability. However, large changes in revenues or cost estimates can have a significant effect on profitability.
The accuracy of our revenue and profit recognition in a given period depends on the accuracy of our estimates of the cost to complete each project. Cost estimates for all of our projects use a detailed approach, and we believe our experience allows us to create materially reliable estimates. There are a number of factors that can contribute to changes in estimates of contract cost and profitability. The most significant of these include:
the completeness and accuracy of the original bid;
costs associated with scope changes;
changes in costs of labor and/or materials;
extended overhead and other costs due to owner, weather and other delays;
subcontractor performance issues;
changes in productivity expectations;
site conditions that differ from those assumed in the original bid;
changes from original design on design-build projects;
the availability and skill level of workers in the geographic location of the project;
a change in the availability and proximity of equipment and materials;
our ability to fully and promptly recover on affirmative claims and back charges for additional contract costs; and
the customer’s ability to properly administer the contract.
The foregoing factors, as well as the stage of completion of contracts in process and the mix of contracts at different margins, may cause fluctuations in gross profit between periods, and these fluctuations may be significant.
Contracts Receivable, Including Retainage, Net
Contracts receivable are generally based on amounts billed to the customer and currently due in accordance with our contracts. Many of the contracts under which we perform work contain retainage provisions. Retainage refers to amounts that we have billed to the customer and the Company has an unconditional right to payment, but are being held for payment by the customer pending satisfactory completion of the project. Retainage on active contracts is classified as a current asset regardless of the term of the contract and is generally collected within one year of the completion of a contract. At September 30, 2023 and 2022, contracts receivable included $53.3 million and $44.3 million, respectively, of retainage, which was being contractually withheld by customers until satisfactory completion of the associated contracts.
Because the majority of our construction contracts are entered into with federal, state or municipal government customers, credit risk is minimal. We confirm that funds have been appropriated by the government project owner prior to commencing work on such projects. While most of our public contracts are subject to termination at the election of the government entity, in the event of any such termination, we are entitled to receive the contract price for completed work and reimbursement of termination-related costs. Credit risk with private owners is minimized because of statutory mechanic’s liens, which give us high priority in the event of lien foreclosures following financial difficulties of private owners. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts, which has historically been sufficient to cover accounts that are not collected.
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Valuation of Long-Lived Assets and Goodwill
Long-lived assets, which include property, plant and equipment and acquired intangible assets, such as goodwill, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset, or an asset group, may not be recoverable. Impairment evaluations involve fair values and management estimates of useful asset lives and future cash flows. Actual useful lives and cash flows could be different from those estimated by management, and this could have a material effect on our operating results and financial position. For fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022, there were no events or changes in circumstances that would indicate a material impairment of our long-lived assets.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets must be tested for impairment at least annually. We performed our most recent annual impairment test on July 1, 2023. Our test indicated that there was no impairment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. For our goodwill impairment test, we first evaluate our market capitalization compared to the net assets of the Company overall. Our final determination of valuation is impacted by a number of factors, but the key factors are the price of our common stock, recently completed transactions from both public companies and private transactions and our estimated forecast of future cash flows.
The valuation approaches contain uncertainty regarding the estimates used. Our market capitalization could be impacted because we are a controlled company, which impacts the control premium we apply to the market price of our common stock. One of the largest uncertainties relates to federal, state and local government spending, which management expects to increase in the upcoming years. There are a number of other uncertainties with respect to our future financial performance that could impact estimated future cash flows, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” elsewhere in this report. Based on our valuation approaches, we determined that our one reporting unit exceeded its carrying value, and thus concluded that the carrying value of goodwill was not impaired at July 1, 2023 or 2022. At September 30, 2023 and 2022, we had goodwill with a carrying amount of $159.3 million and $129.5 million, respectively.
For our indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test, we performed a qualitative impairment assessment. The qualitative assessment did not identify indicators of impairment, and it was determined that is more likely than not the indefinite-lived name license fair value was more than its carrying amount. Accordingly, no further analysis was required or performed.
Inventories
The Company’s inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and are accounted for on an average cost basis or a first-in, first-out cost basis. The cost of inventory includes the cost of material, labor, trucking and other equipment costs associated with procuring and transporting materials to HMA plants for production and delivery to customers. Inventories consist primarily of construction stone that has been removed from aggregates facilities and processed for future sale or internal use, raw materials including asphalt cement, and aggregates and millings that the Company expects to utilize on construction projects within one year. Inventories valued on the average cost basis totaled $75.5 million and $64.8 million at September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Inventories valued on the first-in, first-out cost basis totaled $8.5 million and $9.4 million at September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability and, where necessary, establish a valuation allowance. Valuation allowances are established to reduce deferred tax assets if we determine that it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in future periods.
To assess this likelihood, we use historical three-year results of operations, estimates and judgments regarding our future taxable income and consider the jurisdiction in which the taxable income is generated to determine whether a valuation allowance is required. Such evidence can include our current financial position, results of operations, actual and forecasted results, the reversal of deferred tax liabilities, tax planning strategies and the current and forecasted business economics of our industry. Additionally, we record uncertain tax positions at their net recognizable amount, based on the amount that management deems is more likely than not to be sustained upon ultimate settlement with the tax authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate.
On the basis of our evaluations, at September 30, 2023 and 2022, no valuation allowance was recorded on our net deferred tax assets, and we had no material uncertain tax positions. If our estimates or assumptions regarding our current and deferred tax items are inaccurate or are modified, these changes could have potentially material impacts on our earnings.
Accrued Insurance Cost
We carry insurance policies to cover various risks, primarily including general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation, under which we are liable to reimburse the insurance company for a portion of each claim paid. Since October 1, 2021, the Captive has retained the first $1,000,000 per claim liability for each claim paid. Also effective October 1, 2021, we became a member of a group captive insurance company that retains the next $550,000 per claim liability for each claim paid. We utilize various
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primary and excess insurance companies to cover the liability for claims in excess of the retained amounts. Changes in loss assumptions caused by changes in actual experience would affect the assessment of the ultimate liability and could have an effect on our operating results and financial position up to $1,000,000 per occurrence for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims. Prior to October 1, 2021, the amount for which we were liable for general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims ranged from $100,000 to $500,000 per occurrence. Management accrues insurance costs for probable losses, both reported and unreported, that are reasonably estimable using actuarial methods based on historic trends modified, if necessary, by recent events.
We provide employee medical insurance under policies that are both fixed-premium, fully-insured policies and self-insured policies that are administered by the insurance company. Under the self-insured policies, we are liable to reimburse the insurance company for actual claims paid plus an administrative fee. We purchase separate stop-loss insurance, which limits the individual participant claim loss to amounts ranging from $100,000 to $160,000.
Share-Based Payments and Other Equity Transactions
Our equity incentive plans are administered by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors. We account for awards issued under our equity incentive plan using a fair value-based method of accounting, whereby compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized over the service period, which is typically the vesting period.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Commodity Price Risk
We are subject to commodity price risk with respect to price changes in liquid asphalt and energy, including fossil fuels and electricity for aggregates and asphalt paving mix production, natural gas for HMA production and diesel fuel for distribution vehicles and production-related mobile equipment. In order to manage or reduce commodity price risk, we monitor the costs of these commodities at the time of bid and price them into our contracts accordingly. Furthermore, liquid asphalt escalator provisions in most of our public contracts, and in some of our private and commercial contracts, limit our exposure to price fluctuations in this commodity. In addition, we enter into various firm purchase commitments, with terms generally less than 18 months, for certain raw materials.
Our risk management activities also include the use of financial derivative instruments. We have entered into fuel swap and natural gas swap contracts to mitigate the financial impact of fluctuations in commodity prices. We do not enter into commodity swap contracts for speculative or trading purposes. These fuel swap and natural gas swap contracts provide a fixed price for less than 50% of our estimated fuel and natural gas usage for fiscal years 2024 and 2025.
The table below provides information about the Company’s fuel swap and natural gas swap contracts that are sensitive to changes in commodity prices as of September 30, 2023.
Carrying AmountFair Value
Fuel swap contracts (1)
   Contract volumes (1,000 gallons)378 
   Weighted average price (per gallon) 2.71 
   Contract amount (in thousands)$204 $204 
Natural gas swap contracts (1)
Contract volumes (1,000 MMBTU)10 
Weighted average price (per MMBTU)4.74 
Contract amount (in thousands)$(20)$(20)
(1)See also Note 20 - Fair Value Measurements and Note 21 - Investments in Derivative Instruments to the consolidated financial statements included in this report.
Interest Rate Risk
We are exposed to interest rate risk on certain of our short- and long-term debt obligations used to finance our operations and acquisitions. We have SOFR-based floating rate borrowings under the Credit Agreement, which expose us to variability in interest payments due to changes in the reference interest rates. From time to time, we use derivative instruments as hedges against the impact
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of interest rate changes on future earnings and cash flows. We do not enter into such derivative instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
At September 30, 2023, we had a total of $376.9 million of variable rate borrowings outstanding. Holding other factors constant and absent the interest rate swap agreements described above, a hypothetical 1% change in our borrowing rates would result in a $3.8 million change in our annual interest expense based on our variable rate debt outstanding at September 30, 2023. The notional amount of the Company’s outstanding interest rate swap contract at September 30, 2023 was $300.0 million. The maturity date of this swap is June 30, 2027, and the fair value of the outstanding swap contract was $26.9 million as of September 30, 2023.
The following table presents the future principal payment obligations, interest payments, and fair values associated with the Company’s debt instruments assuming the Company’s actual level of variable rate debt as of September 30, 2023 (in thousands).
For the Fiscal Year Ending September 30,Fair
2024202520262027ThereafterTotalValue
Debt obligations
   Term loan$15,000 $18,750 $22,500 $227,500 $— $283,750 $283,750 
   Revolving credit facility— — — 93,100 — 93,100 93,100 
   Interest payments (1)
25,726 24,654 23,192 16,371 — 
           (1) Represents projected interest payments using the Company’s September 2023 SOFR-based floating rate of 6.93%.
See also Note 20 - Fair Value Measurements and Note 21 - Investments in Derivative Instruments to the consolidated financial statements included in this report.
Inflation Risk
We are subject to the effects of inflation through wage pressures, increases in the cost of raw materials used to produce HMA, and increases in other items, such as fuel, concrete and steel. In recent years, inflation, supply chain and upward wage pressures have had a significant impact on the global economy, including the construction industry in the United States. While it is impossible to fully eliminate the impact of these factors, we seek to recover increasing costs by obtaining higher prices for our products or by including the anticipated price increases in our bids. Due to the relatively short-term duration of our construction contracts, we are generally able to reduce our exposure to price increases on new contracts, but we are limited in our ability to pass through increased costs for projects already in our backlog. Going forward, continued cost inflation in these areas may require further price adjustments to maintain profit margin, and any price increases may have a negative effect on demand.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Construction Partners, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Construction Partners, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the Company) as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013, and our report dated November 29, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee of the board of directors and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Revenue Recognition – Revenue Recognized Over Time Under Uncompleted Long-Term Construction Contracts
As described in Note 6, the Company has recognized $2,025,866,000 of costs and estimated earnings to date on uncompleted contracts at September 30, 2023. As described in Note 1 to the financial statements, the Company recognizes revenue derived from long-term construction contracts over time as the Company satisfies the single performance obligation for each construction contract. Progress towards completion of the performance obligation in each long-term construction project is estimated using the input method, which is measured by the relationship of total costs incurred through the measurement date to total estimated costs required to complete the project (cost-to-cost input method). Recognition of revenue under uncompleted construction contracts requires significant judgment by management, including measuring progress towards completion of the contract by estimating total costs expected to be incurred to complete a contract.
We have identified the revenue recognized under long-term construction contracts that were uncompleted at September 30, 2023, as a critical audit matter because of the significant assumptions management makes in determining the amount of revenue to recognize prior to completion of a contract. Auditing management’s judgments related to measuring progress towards completion of the Company’s contracts through estimating total costs expected to be incurred to complete the contracts involved a high degree of auditor judgment and increased audit effort.
Our audit procedures related to revenue recognized under uncompleted long-term construction contracts included the following, among others:
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We obtained an understanding of the relevant controls related to revenue recognized under long-term construction contracts and tested such controls for design and operating effectiveness, including management’s controls over the estimation of total contract costs to be incurred in order to complete uncompleted contracts.
We selected a sample of long-term construction contracts and we performed the following:
Compared the current year costs incurred to prior year estimates of costs to complete, which involved comparing projects completed during the fiscal year with the estimates made as of the previous balance sheet date to evaluate management’s ability to accurately estimate costs to complete on its long-term construction contracts.
Analyzed the estimated gross margins for uncompleted contracts by comparing the Company’s three-year historical average gross margin stratified by customer type to the estimated margin for uncompleted contracts at fiscal year-end.
Inquired with individuals outside of the accounting function, including project management teams and individuals responsible for oversight and performance of the contracts, to obtain corroborating evidence regarding estimates of costs to complete and estimated gross margins on uncompleted contracts.
Compared the costs incurred during the month immediately subsequent to the fiscal year end to costs and estimated earnings to date on uncompleted contracts at September 30, 2023, and on a sample basis, inquired with individuals responsible for oversight and performance of the contracts in order to obtain corroborating evidence regarding estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts.
/s/ RSM US LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2017.
Birmingham, Alabama
November 29, 2023

















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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Construction Partners, Inc.
Opinion on the Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Construction Partners, Inc., and its subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements and our report dated November 29, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion.

As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded Ferebee Corporation from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, because it was acquired by the Company on December 1, 2022. We have also excluded Ferebee Corporation from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. Ferebee Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary whose total assets (excluding goodwill which was included within the scope of management’s assessment), revenues and net income represent approximately 5%, 3% and 2%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended September 30, 2023.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ RSM US LLP

Birmingham, Alabama
November 29, 2023
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CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
September 30,
20232022
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$48,243 $35,531 
Restricted cash837 28 
Contracts receivable including retainage, net303,704 265,207 
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts27,296 29,271 
Inventories84,038 74,195 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets9,306 12,957 
Total current assets473,424 417,189 
Property, plant and equipment, net505,095 481,412 
Operating lease right-of-use assets14,485 13,985 
Goodwill159,270 129,465 
Intangible assets, net19,520 15,976 
Investment in joint venture87 87 
Restricted investments15,079 6,866 
Other assets32,705 30,541 
Total assets$1,219,665 $1,095,521 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$151,406 $130,468 
Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts78,905 52,477 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities2,338 2,209 
Current maturities of long-term debt15,000 12,500 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities31,534 28,484 
Total current liabilities279,183 226,138 
Long-term liabilities:
Long-term debt, net of current maturities and deferred debt issuance costs360,740 363,066 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion12,649 12,059 
Deferred income taxes, net37,121 26,713 
Other long-term liabilities13,398 11,666 
Total long-term liabilities423,908 413,504 
Total liabilities703,091 639,642 
Commitments and contingencies
Stockholders’ Equity:
Preferred stock, par value $0.001; 10,000,000 shares authorized at September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022 and no shares issued and outstanding
  
Class A common stock, par value $0.001; 400,000,000 shares authorized, 43,760,546 shares issued and 43,727,680 shares outstanding at September 30, 2023, and 41,195,730 shares issued and 41,193,024 shares outstanding at September 30, 2022
44 41 
Class B common stock, par value $0.001; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 11,921,463 shares issued and 8,998,511 shares outstanding at September 30, 2023, and 14,275,867 shares issued and 11,352,915 shares outstanding at September 30, 2022
12 15 
Additional paid-in capital267,330 256,571 
Treasury stock, Class A common stock, par value $0.001, at cost, 32,866 shares at September 30, 2023, and 2,706 shares at September 30, 2022
(178)(39)
Treasury stock, Class B common stock, par value $0.001, at cost, 2,922,952 shares at September 30, 2023 and 2022
(15,603)(15,603)
Accumulated other comprehensive income, net18,694 17,620 
Retained earnings246,275 197,274 
Total stockholders’ equity516,574 455,879 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,219,665 $1,095,521 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
For the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30,
202320222021
Revenues$1,563,548 $1,301,674 $910,739 
Cost of revenues1,367,163 1,162,372 790,803 
Gross profit196,385 139,302 119,936 
General and administrative expenses(126,947)(107,562)(91,878)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment7,048 3,673 2,043 
Gain on facility exchange5,389   
Operating income81,875 35,413 30,101 
Interest expense, net(17,346)(7,701)(2,404)
Other income875 600 819 
Income before provision for income taxes and earnings from investment
      in joint venture
65,404 28,312 28,516 
Provision for income taxes16,403 6,915 8,349 
Earnings (loss) from investment in joint venture (21)10 
Net income$49,001 $21,376 $20,177 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swap contract, net1,297 18,091 (23)
Unrealized (loss) on restricted investments, net(223)(448) 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net1,074 17,643 (23)
Comprehensive income$50,075 $39,019 $20,154 
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic$0.95 $0.41 $0.39 
Diluted$0.94 $0.41 $0.39 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic51,827,001 51,773,559 51,636,955 
Diluted52,260,206 51,957,420 51,773,213 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.



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CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share data)
Class A Common StockClass B Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Treasury
Stock Class A Common Stock
Treasury
Stock Class B Common Stock
Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss), netRetained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance, September 30, 202033,875,884 $34 20,828,813 $21 $245,022 $ $(15,603)$ $155,721 $400,798 
Conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock2,214,022 2 (2,214,022)(2)— — — — —  
Issuance of stock grant awards510,733 1 — — — — — — — 1 
Equity-based compensation expense— — — — 3,549 — — — — 3,549 
Other comprehensive (loss)— — — — — — — (23)— (23)
Net income— — — — — — — — 20,177 20,177 
Balance, September 30, 202136,600,639 37 18,614,791 19 248,571  (15,603)(23)175,898 408,899 
Conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock4,338,924 4 (4,338,924)(4)— — — — —  
Issuance of stock grant awards256,167 — — — — — — — —  
Equity-based compensation expense— — — — 8,000 — — — — 8,000 
Purchase of treasury stock— — — — — (39)— — — (39)
Other comprehensive income— — — — — — — 17,643 — 17,643 
Net income— — — — — — — — 21,376 21,376 
Balance, September 30, 202241,195,730 41 14,275,867 15 256,571 (39)(15,603)17,620 197,274 455,879 
Conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock2,354,404 3 (2,354,404)(3)— — — — —  
Issuance of stock grant awards210,412 — — — — — — — —  
Equity-based compensation expense— — — — 10,759 — — — — 10,759 
Purchase of treasury stock— — — — — (139)— — — (139)
Other comprehensive income— — — — — — — 1,074 — 1,074 
Net income— — — — — — — — 49,001 49,001 
Balance, September 30, 202343,760,546 $44 11,921,463 $12 $267,330 (178)(15,603)$18,694 $246,275 $516,574 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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CONSTRUCTION PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30,
202320222021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$49,001 $21,376 $20,177 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, depletion, accretion and amortization 79,100 65,730 49,806 
Amortization of deferred debt issuance costs299 216 275 
Unrealized loss (gain) on derivative instruments342 (382)(3,209)
Provision (recovery) for bad debt456 (947)784 
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment(7,048)(3,673)(2,043)
Gain on facility exchange(5,389)  
Realized losses on restricted investments30   
Equity-based compensation expense10,759 8,000 3,549 
Loss (earnings) from investment in joint venture 21 (10)
Distribution of earnings from investment in joint venture  100 
Deferred income taxes11,165 5,966 3,745 
  Other non-cash adjustments(263)40 (46)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Contracts receivable including retainage(25,961)(97,075)(27,074)
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts2,573 (6,123)(15,150)
Inventories(7,320)(17,513)(3,932)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets3,650 (4,912)(1,759)
Other assets(129)(955)(2,928)
Accounts payable17,220 41,319 20,201 
Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts24,099 15,635 15 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities2,340 (11,559)3,848 
Other long-term liabilities2,233 1,334 2,151 
Net cash provided by operating activities, net of acquisitions157,157 16,498 48,500 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property, plant and equipment(97,810)(68,851)(56,332)
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment17,698 7,525 3,654 
Proceeds from facility exchange36,987   
Business acquisitions, net of cash acquired(91,787)(128,568)(210,734)
Proceeds from the sale of restricted investments2,900   
Purchases of restricted investments(11,360)(7,432) 
Net cash used in investing activities(143,372)(197,326)(263,412)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs103,000 167,300 219,197 
Principal payments of long-term debt(103,125)(8,125)(95,350)
Purchase of treasury stock(139)(39) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(264)159,136 123,847 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash13,521 (21,692)